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Friday, January 09, 2004

 
Defensenews.com
India To Pay RSK MiG $140M for Gorshkov Aircraft
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India and the producers of MiG aircraft, Russian Aircraft-building Corporation MiG (RSK MiG), have agreed on the price India will pay for 16 MiG-29K aircraft that will outfit the Admiral Gorshkov, the retired Russian aircraft carrier that India has been negotiating to acquire.
An Indian Navy official told DefenseNews.com that the Indian Defence Ministry and RSK MiG on Jan. 8 signed a memorandum of understanding for India to buy the MiG-29Ks for $140 million, around $6.6 million per aircraft. The Indian Navy official said the $140 million would include integration of additional equipment and training for the Indian pilots.
Indian Defence Ministry officials confirmed Dec. 4 that New Delhi and Moscow, after three years of negotiations, had agreed that India will pay $666.6 million for the retired aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov to be refitted by SevMash Enterprise, Severodvinsk, Russia. Russia in 2000 offered the ship to India free of cost provided India paid for its refitting in Russia and bought Russian aircraft. Talks on the carrier deal began 10 years ago.

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With agreements on the MiG-29Ks and the refit price of the Admiral Gorshkov, the deal for India to acquire the aircraft carrier likely will be inked during the Jan. 20 visit of the Russian defense minister to India, a senior Indian Defence Ministry official said Jan.8.
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Grant Signals New Military Ties Between India, Sri Lanka
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

In a major improvement in India-Sri Lankan defense ties, India is granting its neighbor $10.86 million to upgrade the Palaly air base in Sri Lanka’s Jaffna area.
The Palaly base is in poor condition following years of fighting between Tamil Tiger guerillas and the Sri Lankan Army. Officials in the Indian Defence Ministry said Jan. 7 the grant would fund infrastructure improvements at the base.
Indian officials added that the grant is a response to a Sri Lankan Defence Ministry proposal. Sri Lanka also has sought Indian military assistance in leasing transport helicopters, disclosed the officials.

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New Delhi increasingly is fostering defense ties with Sri Lanka, as the island nation’s strategic location can help India in securing its interests in the Indian Ocean, added one Indian Defence Ministry official here.
India’s new command in the Andaman and Nicobar islands of the Indian Ocean is regarded as the base of its future rapid deployment and provides a surveillance hub for eyeing Chinese activity in Myanmar’s Coco islands.
Defense ties between India and Sri Lanka have been strained since the withdrawal from Sri Lanka of an Indian peacekeeping force in 1990.
India has also agreed to a Sri Lankan request to train its troops at Indian military training establishments.
Sri Lanka also is seeking warships and speedboats built at Indian shipyards
Defensenews.com
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India to Test Longer-Range Agni Ballistic Missile
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, NEW DELHI, India

India will test its longer-range Agni ballistic missile in the next few months, newspapers here reported Jan. 1.
“Agni-111 will certainly be launched in the next few months,” V.K. Atre, chief of India’s Defense Research and Development Organization (DRDO) told reporters here Dec. 31.
The Times of India daily said the flight-testing could be held within four months, but there was no immediate official confirmation of the report.

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DRDO sources say the latest variant of the nuclear-capable Agni (Fire) missile will have a maximum range of up to 4,000 kilometers (2,480 miles), making it capable of striking strategic targets deep inside China.
Agni-111’s test was originally scheduled for 2003 but it was deferred because of moves by arch-rivals India and Pakistan to bury decades of mutual hostility, analysts say.
India has already begun the production of its 700-kilometer (434-mile) Agni-1 and the 2,500-kilometer- (1,550-mile-) range Agni-11 after flight-testing both the ballistic missiles several times since 1993.
India, which conducted nuclear weapons tests in 1998, has developed a series of nuclear and conventional missile systems as part of the DRDO’s Integrated Missile Development Program, which was launched in 1983
Defensenews.com
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Indian Plant Assembles First Russian-Built T-90
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India’s state-owned Heavy Vehicles Factory at Avadhi in southern India has completed assembly of the first Russian-built T-90 tank ever put together in the country.
An Indian Defence Ministry official said the plant on Jan. 7 will roll out the tank, which arrived from Russia in a partially disassembled state — lacking a few systems such as the gun barrel, thermal imaging sights and fire-control system, to be attached in India.
Under an agreement signed with Russia’s Uralvagonzavod State Enterprise in 2000, India is buying 310 T-90 tanks for $650 million. Russia to date has delivered to New Delhi about 90 of 100 combat-ready tanks at a cost of $2 million each. The remaining 210 tanks are to be built at Indian facilities under a technology-transfer deal.

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The Defence Ministry official told DefenseNews.com on Jan. 6 that Indian technicians now are preparing to put together other partially assembled T-90 tanks, including many that will require completion or assembly of engines, fire-control and gun-control systems, and other components. The partially assembled T-90 tanks were shipped to India from Russia in early 2003.
After the technicians assemble these tanks, the Heavy Vehicles Factory will start complete production, on a licensed basis, of the remaining T-90 tanks. Heavy Vehicles Factory is India’s only tank manufacturing facility and is controlled by the state-owned Ordnance Factory Board.
The Defence Ministry official added that production of the tanks to be built entirely in India will take another three years as the infrastructure has yet to be set up at the Avadhi factory.
India decided to procure the 310 T-90 tanks after Pakistan acquired T-80 main battle tanks from Ukraine.
Defensenews.com
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Indian Navy Will Face Sweeping EW Upgrades
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The combat and surveillance capabilities of several Indian Navy vessels have deteriorated to such an extent that the service has been forced to limit operations to the Indian Ocean, prompting the government to review extensive modernization requests.
For the past three years, five Russian-built Kashin-II-class destroyers, one Brahmaputra-class frigate, three Godavari-class frigates, five Leander-class frigates and two Petya-II frigates have had operations restricted due to the poor performance and unreliability of aging electronic warfare (EW) systems, Navy officials said Dec. 16.
Cmdr. Vinay Garg, Navy spokesman, said Dec. 15 that Russian-built EW systems have gone beyond their life cycle and must be replaced. The service initially will procure a few EW systems from Israel and experiment with them aboard Russian-built warships during the next two to three years.

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The Navy has approached Rafael Armament Development Authority Ltd., Haifa, Israel, to supply seven Shipborne Integrated Electronic Warfare Systems that can be integrated with the existing combat systems of the warships. The initial contract, for seven EW systems, would be worth $107 million.
For the longer term, the government is considering the Navy’s $500 million EW modernization proposal, a senior Ministry of Defence official said Dec.16.
Building an EW Suite
As part of an integrated EW suite, the Navy wants electronic support measures equipment that can be mounted on its warships as passive prime sensors for long-range tactical surveillance, intelligence gathering, over-the-horizon targeting and threat warning, the service officials said.
The service also is scouting for highly effective radiated power multibeam array transmitters capable of providing coverage against multiple threats. In addition, the Navy will procure dozens of digital radio frequency memory systems capable of digitally capturing, delaying and then replaying an accurate representation — in terms of phase, frequency and pulse width — of the received radar pulse.
Indigenous Efforts
India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) is focused on developing electronic intelligence from foreign sources, or ELINT, moving away from electronic support measures systems, one Navy official said.
“There is a subtle but important difference between the two. [Electronic support measures] is primarily a tactical tool used by a commander, whereas ELINT provides strategic intelligence such as warning of imminent hostilities,” he said.
The DRDO has developed ELINT systems that can track ships and aircraft passively, the Navy official added.
The agency also has created EW support systems to bolster the war-fighter’s capabilities on the electronic battlefield, but a second Defence Ministry official criticized the agency’s EW efforts as piecemeal. Such projects must be built under a comprehensive plan to achieve complete interoperability of EW systems and other shipborne sensors, he said.
“Apart from developing and mounting new-generation EW systems on the warships, the main task is to devise a closer interaction between the Indian Navy, designers of EW systems, production agencies and DRDO, which is lacking at the moment,” Krishna Arora, an independent defense analyst and retired Indian Navy commander, said Dec. 17
Defensenews.com
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How Musharraf Has Divided the Military in Pakistan?
By Tarique Niazi
SINCE THE DAWN of Pakistan, its military has never fired off missives of protest to opposition leaders whom each government branded as “enemies of Pakistan.” Fifty five years after, the restive rank and file of Pakistan Army, disgusted by their “warlord,” Gen. Pervez Musharraf, took a deep breath and decided to cross that taboo.
This year they began a letter-writing campaign, enlisting the support of the country’s largest-ever movement for democracy, the Alliance for Restoration of Democracy (ARD), to rid the country of Gen. Musharraf. The letter-writers made two-fold demands: First, a thorough probe should be conducted into the 1999 Kargil war between Pakistan and India, whose ultimate outcome was five more years in power for the Bharatiya Janata Party (BJP) of India and its fired prime minister, AB Vajpayee; while Pakistan Army was paraded around the world as a “bunch of rogues,” and Pakistan itself was since condemned to live under dictatorship.
Second, the cabal of army generals who committed the lethal violation of the Constitution of Pakistan should be unmasked by an investigation into the October 12, 1999 coup.
Interestingly, the letter-writers did not address the democratic opposition as “opposition.” They instead addressed it with the honorific of “Qaumi Qiadat” (National Leadership), which is represented by Prime Ministers Benazir Bhutto and Nawaz Sharif, and their respective parties – Pakistan People’s Party (PPP) and Pakistan Muslim League (PML).
These leaders and their parties present a sharp contrast to Gen. Musharraf’s cabinet of water-carriers, dressed up as ministers and prime minister to front his military dictatorship. None of his cabinet members, who are slave to their personal and parochial interests, has any stake in Pakistan.
Over the past four years, Gen. Musharraf has systematically undertaken the destruction of national politics and national leadership by promoting personalism and parochialism all across the country. As a result, “Pakistan” is today left for only two parties to own it: “Pakistan” People’s Party (PPP) and “Pakistan” Muslim League (PML). There is no other mentionable political outfit in any of the country’s four provinces to prefix or suffix the word “Pakistan” to its name. Not an unremarkable feat just in four years!
This rapid decline in national integration has raised the red flags for the military that turned to the national leadership to help reverse it. The letter-writers used Pakistan Army’s stationery, embossed with the General Headquarters’ (GHQ) monogram, for their letters to lend due authenticity to their contents.
Having received these letters for months, it finally fell to the bravest of the brave Javed Hashmi, who presides over the ARD, to make these letters and their contents public. As soon as he did that, Gen. Musharraf let loose his hounds to have him kidnapped on October 29 from his official residence in Islamabad. He had since been kept incommunicado.
Mr. Hashmi’s guilt is not yet firm in the mind of his captors. Now it is sedition; now it is treason. Sedition implies to “divide the military” (against Gen. Musharraf!); while treason means to bring physical harm to Pakistan. Does “division in the military” make news? I would suspect the patriotism of the military if it is not divided against its abuser-in-chief, Gen. Musharraf, and his treacherous ways to build himself up and build Pakistan down. How could not the military divide against him when he used its raw force to dismantle one institution of the country after another to keep him in power? Bureaucracy. Constitution. Judiciary. Police. Parliament. And now military.
In January 2001 he had the Chief Justice of Pakistan house-arrested? Then, he went on to fire five of his brother judges on the bench, who were suspected of standing up to him for defense of the Constitution. Undeterred still, he again shouldered himself onto the military to invent the farce of April 2002 referendum to elect himself president? He kick started his fraudulent election campaign in military uniform (wearing a look of clown) with his corps commanders in attendance (no past military dictator in Pakistan went that far in his perverse ambitions to prostitute the military for political gains).
All across the country, his rallies were swelled with troops bused in from nearby military encampments. In August 2002, he disemboweled the Constitution with a knife of 29 self-serving amendments, a.k.a., Legal Framework Order (LFO). Yet he stopped the members of the superior judiciary from pledging allegiance to Pakistan and its constitution. Instead, he bribed his way to the judges with a three-year extension in their service on the bench in flagrant violation of the constitution.
He did not limit bribery to the judiciary alone, however; he extended it to the military also. He used bribe and corruption as the glue to firm up what he calls the “unity of command” (read: Pakistan Army). Tens of thousands of military personnel were bought off with lucrative civilian sector employment to quieten down the rumblings in their ranks.
Until December 2001, as many as 20,000 military personnel were posted all across Pakistan to serve as the eyes and ears of Gen. Musharraf’s dictatorship by “monitoring” civil bureaucrats in their respective district headquarters. According to press reports in Pakistan, many of the “monitors” minted millions from their earful and eye-filling work. They would have been making hay to this day, had India not mobilized in December 2001 hundreds of thousands of its troops to amass along the Line of Control (LOC) in Kashmir.
The 20,000 monitors were then called up to do what they were paid for: Defend Pakistan. Gen. Musharraf’s attempts to corrupt the military had since stirred deep resentment that seeped down to the ranks. It was no coincidence that he was target of an assassination plot thought up and executed exclusively by non-commissioned officers (NCOs), a first-ever example of its kind in the military history of Pakistan!
It doesn’t mean that general officers (brigadiers and above) were hesitant in venting their grumbles and growls at the daily abuse of their institution by a power-mad dictator. They were repulsed, too, and their repulsion was forcefully expressed by the Chairman Joint Chiefs of Staff Committee, Gen. Abdul Aziz, who publicly rebuffed Gen. Musharraf for his insistence to double as Army chief and president. Within days, Gen. Musharraf had to face even worse humiliation at the hands of his corps commanders who ruthlessly grilled him for his “patriotic failings.”
He emerged so deeply scarred from that grilling that he let out a public scream of self-pity: “I shall be traitor to Pakistan if I compromise Pakistan’s interests.” Traitor! Exactly, it was the “T” word with which his commanders shot him in their supersecret sessions held in the depths of their GHQ.
The rank and file of the military has since been kept solidly behind Gen. Musharraf by the force of media-manufactured fibs: That the nation has unwavering faith in their super patriotism, and is willing to swallow “anything in uniform” (including Gen. Musharraf). The bubble of these fibs popped up on three occasions to bare the contrary ugly reality: First, when 20,000 military monitors left their civilian posts to face down Indian troops in December 2001, their civilian victims were widely reported in Pakistan to have breathed a collective sigh of relief with their heartfelt thanks reserved for the terrorists that shot up Indian Parliament and enraged enough India’s prime minister to cast the attack into an “Indian 9/11” (as if it was a badge of honor to show off!).
Second, the farce of April 2002 referendum disgusted the nation so much that the “giants” of the Pakistani press stood on the shoulders of the “gnats” of Pakistani politics to anticipate a “war” between Pakistan and India as “the only way out of Gen. Musharraf’s dictatorship.” If these signals were garbled for the military to read, a police constable’s daring in Lahore to flag a general officer’s car for its tinted windows was too unmistakable a sign of the nation’s loss of faith in the military to miss. The incident painfully showed that Pakistan has run out of patience with its military dictator. Popular outrage impaled the military as an institution across the windscreen of the errant general’s car and in the blood-soaked face of the constable, who was beaten to the pulp. The groundswell of mass support for the constable that flooded from every nook and corner of Pakistan was, however, a “false positive:” It was the pretend hurrah for the constable that masked the tearful outrage against every member of the armed forces.
The masses’ resentment against the military, as evidenced in the above incidents, broke through the lies spun by the media, and had every patriotic soldier thinking hard and long. The letter-writers who have kept their identity secret are the newly awakened members of the armed forces. Mr. Hashmi took upon himself to warn the nation of their concerns and the divisions that run along such concerns. If ignored, these concerns can set off the bloodiest-ever civil war. The guilty party here is not the one who is warning the nation of the danger of divisions in the military, or the divisions themselves, but the Divider-in-Chief – Gen. Musharraf, whose day in court is not far off, if he had not fled the country.
The second charge against Javed Hashmi is that of treason! Gen. Musharraf had all his front men badmouthed Mr Hashmi for “playing into the hands of RAW” (Indian military’s Research and Analysis Wing). I do not suspect Gen. Musharraf’s or his cronies’ “intentions” on Pakistan. It is their “actions” that make me suspect their patriotism. If Gen. Musharraf continues down the path he has followed for the past four years, Pakistan will not need India or RAW to finish it.
Gen. Musharraf already has done to Pakistan what India could not have done in the past 55 years. The only reason for Pakistan to continue to exist is Mr. Hashmi and the millions of its daughters and sons like Mr. Hashmi. A hundred million Musharrafs (that will be 20 billion pounds of garbage) are not worth the ground that Mr Hashmi walks. He is a stake in the heart of the dictator and his dictatorship, which makes him so “dangerous.” But when it comes to patriotism, Mr. Hashmi is the North Star of it to which every member of the armed forces and every citizen of Pakistan looks to soak up its light. Patriotism is defined by his courage and a tale of his endless sacrifices for Pakistan. The difference between Mr Hashmi and Gen. Musharraf is that Mr Hashmi bled for Pakistan, while Gen. Musharraf bled Pakistan for himself.
This contrast brings me to my long overdue advice to the democratic opposition. First, stop second-guessing the divisions in the military. They are real, and do something about them before they begin to be acted out in blood (i.e., get rid of Gen. Musharraf). Second, keep your outrage directed at the Divider-in-Chief, Gen. Musharraf who, like autotroph, is now cutting into the bough he is nesting on – military.
Do not play into his hands by quibbling over Hudood Ordinance, which could be settled after Pakistan is rid of dictatorship, the supremacy of the constitution is upheld, and a democratically elected government is put in place. Third, craft a unified demand for Gen. Musharraf to step down in a given timeline, and call for free and fair elections under a caretaker government. Fourth, if he refuses to step down, resign from national and provincial legislatures and give a nation-wide call to overthrow the dictator and his dictatorship. Anything less than that will be a lease on life for Gen. Musharraf and death knell for the democratic opposition.
SATRIBUNE.COM 9 Jan 2004.
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Is the Trail of Nuclear Transfers to Rogue Nations Leading towards Pakistan
By David E. Sanger & William J. Broad
THE PAKISTANI leaders who denied for years that scientists at the country's secret A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories were peddling advanced nuclear technology must have been averting their eyes from a most conspicuous piece of evidence: the laboratory's own sales brochure, quietly circulated to aspiring nuclear weapons states and a network of nuclear middlemen around the world.
The cover bears an official-looking seal that says "Government of Pakistan" and a photograph of the father of the Pakistani bomb, Abdul Qadeer Khan. It promotes components that were spinoffs from Pakistan's three-decade-long project to build a nuclear stockpile of enriched uranium, set in a drawing that bears a striking resemblance to a mushroom cloud.
In other nations, such sales would be strictly controlled. But Pakistan has always played by its own rules.
As investigators unravel the mysteries of the North Korean, Iranian and now the Libyan nuclear projects, Pakistan — and those it empowered with knowledge and technology they are now selling on their own — has emerged as the intellectual and trading hub of a loose network of hidden nuclear proliferators.
That network is global, stretching from Germany to Dubai and from China to South Asia, and involves many middlemen and suppliers. But what is striking about a string of recent disclosures, experts say, is how many roads appear ultimately to lead back to the Khan Research Laboratories in Kahuta, where Pakistan's own bomb was developed.
In 2002 the United States was surprised to discover how North Korea had turned to the Khan laboratory for an alternative way to manufacture nuclear fuel, after the reactors and reprocessing facilities it had relied on for years were "frozen" under a now shattered agreement with the Clinton administration. Last year, international inspectors and Western intelligence agencies were surprised again, this time by the central role Pakistan played in the initial technology that enabled Iran to pursue a secret uranium enrichment program for 18 years.
The sources of Libya's enrichment program are still under investigation, but those who have had an early glance say they see "interconnections" with both Pakistan and Iran's programs — and Libyan financial support for the Pakistani program that stretches back three decades.
Until two weeks ago, Pakistani officials had long denied that any nuclear technology was transferred from their laboratories. But now that story has begun to change, after the Pakistani authorities, under pressure, began interrogating scientists from the laboratory about their assistance to other nuclear aspirants. Two weeks ago, Dr. Khan himself was called in for what appears to have been a respectful, and still inconclusive, questioning.
Responding to requests relayed through associates, Dr. Khan has recently denied that he aided atomic hopefuls. But American and European officials note that in the 1980's he repeatedly denied that Pakistan was at work on an atomic bomb, which it finally tested in 1998.
While American intelligence officials have gathered details on the activities of the creator of the Pakistani bomb and his compatriots for decades, four successive American presidents have dealt with the issue extremely delicately, turning modest sanctions against Pakistan on and off, for fear of destabilizing the country when it was needed to counter the Soviets in the 1980's, much as it is needed to battle terrorism today.
President Bush, who regularly talks about nuclear dangers, has never mentioned Pakistan's laboratories or their proliferation in public — probably out of concern of destabilizing President Pervez Musharraf, who has survived two assassination attempts in December.
"He's been a stand-up guy when it comes to dealing with the terrorists," Mr. Bush said of General Musharraf on Thursday. "We are making progress against Al Qaeda because of his cooperation." He dismissed a question about the vulnerability of Pakistan's own nuclear weapons, saying, "Yes, they are secure," then changed the subject.
Yet when President Bush talks about the horrors that could unfold if a nuclear weapon fell into the hands of terrorists, it is Pakistan's combustible mix of expertise, components, fuel and fully assembled weapons that springs to the minds of American and European intelligence experts. In public, the White House says it has received "assurances" from Pakistan that if there ever were nuclear exports they are finished.
"There is this almost empty-headed recitation of assurances that whatever Pakistan did in the past it's over, it's no longer a problem," said one senior European diplomat with access to much of the intelligence about proliferation. "But there's is no evidence that it has ever stopped."
Mohamed ElBaradei, the director general of the International Atomic Energy Agency, the United Nations organization charged with monitoring nuclear energy worldwide, contends that the recent nuclear disclosures show that the system put in place at the height of the cold war to contain nuclear weapons technology has ruptured and can no longer control the new nuclear trade.
"The information is now all over the place, and that's what makes it more dangerous than in the 1960's," Dr. ElBaradei said.
The Crucial Ingredient
The biggest hurdle in making a nuclear weapon is not designing the warhead, but getting the right fuel to create an atomic explosion. One route is to extract plutonium from nuclear reactors and reprocess it to produce more fuel, known as creating a fuel cycle. The other is to extract uranium from the ground and enrich it.
The 1970 treaty on the nonproliferation of nuclear weapons was devised to control which countries could possess and pursue nuclear arms. It allowed the United States, Britain, France, the Soviet Union and China to keep all their weapons but required all other signatories to forswear nuclear arms. North Korea, Iran and Libya all signed, allowing I.A.E.A. inspectors limited visits to verify that countries producing nuclear fuel were truly using "atoms for peace." Pakistan and India never signed, nor did Israel.
Aside from inspections, spy satellites and airborne "sniffers" can usually pick out the huge complexes needed to extract spent fuel from nuclear reactors and turn it into bomb fuel. But after North Korea was caught cheating by the United States in the early 1990's and was forced into an agreement to "freeze" its reactor-and-reprocessing complex at Yongbyon, the lesson was clear: to produce bomb fuel, countries needed to take a more surreptitious route.
Uranium enrichment was the most promising, because it could take place in hidden facilities, emitting few traces. And that was the technology that Dr. Khan perfected as his laboratory raced to produce a nuclear bomb to keep up with its rival, India.
The key to the technology is the development of centrifuges. These hollow tubes spin fast to separate a gaseous form of natural uranium into U-238, a heavy isotope, and U-235, a light one. The rare U-235 isotope is the holy grail: it can easily split in two, releasing bursts of nuclear energy.
But making centrifuges is no easy trick. The rotors of centrifuges, spinning at the speed of sound or faster, must be very strong and perfectly balanced or they fly apart catastrophically.
To produce bomb-grade fuel, uranium must pass through hundreds or thousands of centrifuges linked in a cascade, until impurities are spun away and what remains is mainly U-235 . The result is known as highly enriched uranium.
Dr. Khan returned to Pakistan in 1976 after working in the Netherlands, carrying extremely secret centrifuge designs — a Dutch one that featured an aluminum rotor, and a German one made of maraging steel, a superhard alloy. He was charged with stealing the designs from a European consortium where he worked.
"The designs for the machines," said a secret State Department memo at the time, "were stolen by a Pakistani national."
The steel rotor in the German design turned out to be particularly difficult to make, but it could spin twice as fast, meaning it produced more fuel.
Dr. Khan's accomplishments turned him into a national hero. In 1981, as a tribute, the president of Pakistan, Gen. Mohammad Zia ul-Haq, renamed the enrichment plant the A. Q. Khan Research Laboratories.
Dr. Khan, a fervent nationalist, has condemned the system that limits legal nuclear knowledge to the five major nuclear powers, or that has ignored Israel's nuclear weapon while focusing on the fear of an Islamic bomb. "All Western countries," he was once quoted as saying, "are not only the enemies of Pakistan but in fact of Islam."
In the years before Pakistan's first test in 1998, Dr. Khan and his team began publishing papers in the global scientific literature on how to make and test its uranium centrifuges. In the West, these publications would have been classified secret or top secret.
But Dr. Khan made no secret of his motive: he boasted in print of circumventing the restrictions of the Western nuclear powers, declaring in a 1987 paper that he sought to pierce "the clouds of the so-called secrecy." Papers in 1987 and 1988 detailed how to take the next, difficult steps in the construction of centrifuges — reaching beyond first-generation aluminum rotors to produce more efficient centrifuges out of maraging steel.
David Albright, a former weapons inspector for the I.A.E.A, said the American intelligence community viewed Dr. Khan's papers as a boast. They proved that Pakistan "knew how to build the G-2," a particularly complex design of German origin.
A 1991 paper by his colleagues at the laboratory gave more details away, revealing how to etch special grooves on a centrifuge's bottom bearing, a crucial part for aiding the flow of lubricants in machines spinning at blindingly fast speeds.
A Pentagon program that tracks foreign scientific publications has uncovered dozens of reports, scientific papers and conference proceedings on uranium enrichment that Dr. Khan and his colleagues published. While federal and private experts agree that the blitz left much confidential — including some crucial dimensions, ingredients, manufacturing tricks and design secrets — Pakistan was clearly proclaiming that it had mastered the black art.
"It was a signal to India and the West saying, `Look, we're not the backward people you think we are,' " said Mark Gorwitz, a nonproliferation expert who tracks the Pakistani literature.
The scientific papers were soon followed by sales brochures. Much of the gear marketed by the Khan laboratory was critical for anyone eager to make Dr. Khan's kind of centrifuges. It included vacuum devices that attached to a centrifuge casing and sucked out virtually all the air, reducing friction around the spinning rotors.
In 2000, the Pakistani government ran its own advertisement announcing procedures for commercial exports of many types of nuclear gear, including gas centrifuges and their parts, according to a Congressional Research Service report published in May. Many of the items, it noted, "would be useful in a nuclear weapons program."
Former American intelligence and nonproliferation experts said the CIA was aware of some, but not all, of these activities, and began tracking scientists at the Khan laboratory.
But at every turn, overt pressure was weighed against strategic interests. In the 1980's, Washington viewed Pakistan as a critical ally in the covert war it was waging against the Soviets in Afghanistan. By 1986, American intelligence agencies concluded that Pakistan had succeeded in making weapon-grade uranium, the sure sign that the centrifuges worked. But that same year, Mr. Reagan announced an aid package to Pakistan of more than $4 billion.
The First Nuclear Deals
What American intelligence agencies apparently did not understand at the time was the pace at which Dr. Khan's team was beginning to help other nations.
It started as a quid pro quo with an old patron: China. A declassified State Department memo, obtained by the National Security Archive in Washington, concluded that China, sometime after its first bomb tests in the mid-1960's, had provided Pakistan technology for "fissile material production and possibly also nuclear device design."
Years later, the flow reversed. Mr. Albright, who is the president of the Institute for Science and International Security, an arms control group in Washington, has concluded that China was an early recipient of Pakistan's designs for centrifuges. China had used an antiquated, expensive process for enriching uranium, and the technology Dr. Khan held promised a faster, cheaper, more efficient path to bomb-making.
But that was just the start. Evidence uncovered in recent months shows that around 1987 Pakistan struck a deal with Iran, which had tried unsuccessfully to master enrichment technology on its own during its war with Iraq. The outlines of the deal — pieced together from limited inspections and documents turned over to the I.A.E.A. in October — show that a centrifuge of Pakistani design finally solved Iran's technological problems. That deal was "a tremendous boost," Mr. Albright and his colleague, Corey Hinderstein, said in a draft report on the Iranian program. "The possession of detailed designs could allow Iran to skip many difficult research steps," they added.
The Iranian documents turned over to the I.A.E.A. make no reference to Pakistan itself; they only point to its signature technologies.
"We have middlemen and suspicions," said a Western diplomat with access to the documents. "There is a Pakistani tie for sure, but we don't know the details."
Iran's program fooled the I.A.E.A., which caught no whiff of it during 18 years of inspections. But Pakistan's role was also well hidden from American intelligence agencies.
"We had some intelligence successes with Iran, we knew about some of their enrichment efforts," said Gary Samore, who headed up nonproliferation efforts in the Clinton administration's National Security Council. "What we didn't know was the Pakistan connection — that was a surprise. And the extent of Pakistan's ties was, in retrospect, the surprise of the 1990's."
The Iranians were hardly satisfied customers. They had gotten Pakistan's older models and were forced to slog ahead slowly for two decades, foraging around the world for parts, building experimental facilities involving a few hundred centrifuges, but apparently failing to produce enough fissile material for a bomb.
If the Iranians were the turtle, the North Koreans proved the hare. Around 1997, a decade after the Pakistani deal with Iran, Dr. Khan made inroads with the government of Kim Jong Il, as it sought a way to make nuclear fuel away from the Yongbyon plant and the prying eyes of American satellites. Dr. Khan began traveling to North Korea, visiting 13 times, American intelligence officials said.
During those visits, North Korea offered to exchange centrifuge technology for North Korean missile technology, enabling Pakistan to extend the reach of its nuclear weapons across India.
Again, American intelligence agencies missed many of the signals. They knew of an experimental program, but it took evidence from South Korea to demonstrate that North Korea was moving toward industrial-level production. Then in the summer of 2001, American spy satellites spotted missile parts being loaded into a Pakistani cargo plane near Pyongyang, the North Korean capital. The parts were assumed to be the quid pro quo for the nuclear technology.
Last spring, a few months after the deal was revealed in The New York Times, the State Department announced some sanctions against the Khan laboratory but cited the illegal missile transactions. The State Department said it had insufficient evidence to issue sanctions for a nuclear transfer, a move some dissenting officials suspected was a concession to avoid embarrassing General Musharraf, who had denied that any nuclear transfers ever occurred.
A Congressional report on the Pakistan-North Korea trade notes that over the years "Pakistan has been sanctioned in what some observers deem, an `on again, off again' fashion," mostly for importing technology for unconventional weapons, and later for its 1998 nuclear tests. Those sanctions, which were also issued against India, were waived shortly after the Sept. 11, 2001, terrorist attacks, when the United States suddenly needed Pakistan's cooperation.
It is unclear whether the Pakistan-North Korea connection has been cut off. But new evidence suggests that North Korea is still racing ahead. In April, a ship carrying a large cargo of superstrong aluminum tubing was stopped in the Suez Canal after the German authorities determined that it was destined for North Korea. The precise size of the tubes, according to Western diplomats and industry reports, suggested that they were intended for making the outer casings of G-2 centrifuges, the kind whose rotors are made of steel, and that Dr. Khan wrote about.
The CIA estimates that by 2005, if unchecked, North Korea will begin large-scale production of enriched uranium.
But so far, American intelligence agencies say they are uncertain where North Korea's centrifuge operations are. On Friday, North Korea said it would allow a delegation of American experts into the country this week.
Halting Nuclear Trades
Early in 2003, Mr. Bush established a coordinating group inside the White House to oversee the interception of shipments of unconventional weapons around the world. So far, Washington has drawn more than a dozen nations into a loose posse to track and stop shipments, and Germany, Italy, Taiwan and Japan have executed seizures.
But the first interceptions — and the trail of parts and agreements they reveal — have only pointed to the mushrooming size of the secondary market in parts.
Even more worrisome are the kinds of exchanges that do not move on ships and planes, what Ashton B. Carter, who worked in the Clinton administration on North Korean issues, calls "substantial technical cooperation among all members of the brotherhood of rogues."
North Korean engineers have been sighted living in Iran, ostensibly to help the country build medium- and long-range missiles. But the growing suspicion is that the relationship has now expanded beyond missiles, and that the two nations are warily dealing in the nuclear arena as well.
"We're debating the evidence," said one administration official.
The latest nuclear disclosures came after the United States spotted a German-registered ship headed for Libya through the Suez Canal, with thousands of parts for uranium centrifuges. The interception in October of that shipment, American officials say, tipped the balance for the Libyan leader, Col. Muammar el-Qaddafi, forcing him to agree in December to disclose and dismantle his own nuclear program.
Inspectors are still investigating where Libya's components came from, focusing on manufacturers in Europe and what Dr. ElBaradei calls "interconnections" between the Libyan program and Iran's.
The intercepted shipment came from Dubai, a place of great importance in Dr. Khan's secretive world. It was a Dubai middleman claiming to represent Dr. Khan who in 1990, on the eve of the Persian Gulf war, offered Dr. Khan's aid to Iraq in building an atom bomb. And it was a Dubai middleman whom Dr. Khan blamed for supplying centrifuge parts to Iran, said a European confidante of Dr. Khan's who spoke on the condition of anonymity.
Ties between Libya and Pakistan go back years. In 1973, when Pakistan was just starting its nuclear program, Libya signed a deal to help finance its atomic efforts in exchange for knowledge about how to make nuclear fuel, said Leonard S. Spector of the Monterey Institute of International Studies' Center for Nonproliferation Studies. From 1978 to 1980, he added, Libya appears to have supplied Pakistan with uranium ore. But Libya appears to have made much less progress than the Iranians had.
Dr. ElBaradei estimates that 35 to 40 nations now have the knowledge to build an atomic weapon. In place of the nonproliferation treaty, which he calls obsolete, he proposes revising the world's system to place any facilities that can manufacture fissile material under multinational control.
"Unless you are able to control the actual acquisition of weapon-usable material, you are not able to control proliferation," he said in recent interview. But Mr. Bush and the leaders of the other established nuclear states are reluctant to renegotiate a stronger treaty because it will reopen the question of why some states are permitted to hold nuclear weapons and others are not.
For now the world is left watching a terrifying race — one that pits scientists, middlemen and extremists against Western powers trying to intercept, shipload by shipload, the technology as it spreads through the clandestine network. Mr. Bush remains wary of cracking down on a fragile Pakistan, for fear pressure could tip the situation toward the radicals.
Some in the administration say they think other nations may follow Libya's calculations and abandon their programs voluntarily. But there are doubters.
"Its a fine theory," a top nonproliferation strategist in the administration said recently. "The question for 2004 is whether the mullahs or Kim Jong Il buy into it."
David Rohde contributed reporting from Pakistan for this article. SATRIBUNE 9 Jan 2004
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posted by promila 8:15 AM


Tuesday, December 23, 2003

 
Israeli Defense Chief in India for Talks on Military Cooperation
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, NEW DELHI

The director general of the Israeli defense ministry held talks Monday with Indian officials on arms procurement and other cooperation, an Indian defense ministry source said.
Maj. Gen. Amos Yaron met with the chiefs of the Indian army, air force and navy.
“He is leading the Israeli side in the delegation-level talks. The meeting is focusing on arms procurement, joint military research and industrial cooperation in the defense sector,� the source told AFP.

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Yaron will also meet Indian Defense Minister George Fernandes during his two-day visit.
In October India signed a $1 billion deal with Israel to buy three Phalcon airborne early warning radar systems, which rival Pakistan has warned could trigger an arms race in South Asia.
The Phalcon agreement came a month after Ariel Sharon paid a visit to India, the first by an Israeli prime minister.
India, a longtime supporter of the Palestinian cause, only established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. Since then Israel has become India’s second-largest defense supplier, after Russia, with annual sales topping $1 billion.
Separately, Israeli Science and Technology Minister Eliezer Sandberg and Aby Har-Even, director general of the Israel Space Agency, began a three-day visit to India Dec. 22.
They are due to sign an agreement to put Israel’s Tauvex space telescope on India’s GSAT-4 satellite
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India to Gain Holding Fund for Surpluses
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian government plans to set up a Defence Modernization Fund that could accelerate weapon and equipment purchases.
The fund is the government’s response to the Ministry of Defence’s (MoD’s) failure to spend all the money allocated to it in the last three defense budget cycles. This move creates a permanent account from which the MoD can draw money as needed for defense purchases.
The Defence Modernization Fund will be set up with an initial amount, which a senior Defence Ministry official would not disclose. He said, however, that any unspent money in the future will be put into the new Defence Modernization Fund.

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A senior MoD official said Dec. 15 that the non-expiring fund will be set up after the 2004-05 budget cycle, which begins in February.
In the last few years, the MoD has had to surrender unspent funds for other government needs, as several acquisition projects were delayed.In the last two years, unspent funds totaled about $1 billion each year. During the 2002-03 budget year, $1.86 billion was surrendered by the MoD, which constitutes around 13 percent of the total defense budget of $13.82 billion.
The Defence Modernization Fund could swell to about $5 billion in the next three years, noted another MoD official.
“Weapon acquisition would become much easier for the services with the setting up of the Defence Modernization Fund, which will include surrendered funds from the yearly budget. … In the current system, it is difficult to finalize several acquisition projects in the 12-month cycle,� a senior Air Force official said. The services would be less pressured to respond to procurement decisions out of fear of losing available funds.
Sometimes it takes 18 months for equipment to reach the services after a procurement decision is made by the MoD, the Air Force official said. He added that the Air Force urgently needs around 120 aircraft, and that creating the fund offers new hope for the acquisition of used Dassault Mirage 2000-5 aircraft. The MoD is negotiating to buy the combat jets from Qatar
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Panel Pans Delays in Building India’s Arjun Tanks
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India’s parliamentary watchdog on government expenditures, the Public Accounts Committee, has noted that the delay in producing the indigenous Arjun main battle tank will “seriously undermine the entire planning to re-equip and modernize the Army.�
“The remarks of the 57th Public Accounts Committee report, released by the Indian Parliament Dec. 16, has given support to the idea among a section of the defense planners that India should rely on off-the-shelf purchases from overseas defense markets� to acquire tanks and other military equipment, a senior Ministry of Defence official said Dec. 16.
The $5 million Arjun project was launched in 1974 by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with the objective of eliminating the country’s dependence on foreign countries for military equipment.

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The Arjun tank was intended to enter service between 1985 and 2000, replacing the Army’s existing Vijayanta and T55 tanks. However, the delay in the production of Arjun tanks at Indian factories has delayed the replacement of the obsolete Vijayantas, an Indian Army official said Dec. 16.
The production of 124 Arjun tanks was awarded in 2000 to the state-owned heavy vehicles factory, Avadhi. The first lot was expected to enter production in 2003. The schedule has been revised to 2007.
Because of the Arjun tank delays, India in 2000 signed an agreement with Russia to acquire 310 T90 Main Battle tanks; deliveries began last year.
The Arjun tank is to be equipped with a 120mm gun; a 1,030-horsepower engine from German firm MTU; an integrated fire control system; nuclear, biological and chemical protection system; and laser warning systems.
The Public Accounts Committee also expressed concern over the steep increase in foreign components used in Arjun prototypes.
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Indian Army Outlines Big Weapon Buying Blueprint
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian Army has drawn up a blueprint for modernizing the service in what will be the largest procurement effort in decades.
Lt. Gen. Ashok Chaki, the Army’s deputy chief of procurement, said Oct. 28 the service must upgrade arms, surveillance equipment and command, control and communications systems to maintain an edge over its adversaries.
The 10-year procurement plan, estimated to cost around $15 billion, was submitted to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in October, a senior Army planning official said Nov. 14. The modernization blueprint also envisions a complete overhaul of existing weaponry.

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The Facts:
modernization buys

The Indian Army in the next 10 years wants to buy:
* New advanced command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance equipment, and information warfare systems, as well as upgrades to existing systems.
* Nuclear, biological and chemical equipment, such as protective gear, detection and alarm systems, modulators, vaccine agents, bio-agents and radio protectors.
* Agni, Reflex and Kornet surface-to-surface missiles and Igla surface-to-air missiles, and air defense system upgrades.
* Equipment to upgrade the night-vision capabilities.
* Unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats.
* Various versions of 155mm guns, rocket launchers and other weaponry.
SOURCE: Defense News research

A Defence Ministry official said Nov. 10 that the MoD is considering ways to finance the plan during the next decade. Army officials expect the program to get government approval in December, with bids being solicited in January or February. Deliveries could begin in June, they said.
Arming the Troops
“Our foremost priority is to modernize the Infantry and Rashtriya Rifle Units, which are engaged in combating insurgency and cross-border infiltration,� Chaki said. “The aim is to enhance their lethality, survivability and surveillance capability.�
He said that the equipment procured for these units will include hand-held thermal imagers, short-range battlefield surveillance rad ar, unattended ground sensors, high-resolution binoculars, under-barrel grenade launchers, multiple grenade launchers and sniper rifles with night sights.
To increase troop movement, new high-mobility vehicles are being sought, and the engines of existing ones will be modernized.
Chaki said that emphasis also is being put on boosting conventional warfare capabilities, particularly in procuring thermal imaging sights for tanks, various types of surveillance radar, unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats





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India to Seek Proposals On 600 Shilka Upgrades
Program Expected to Cost More Than $400M

By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

Time and a lack of spare parts have taken their toll on the Indian Army’s Shilka air defense system, so the government in the next couple of months will solicit bids to upgrade all the Russian-made ZSU-23-4 systems.
The modernization program will be carried out in phases, with 48 Shilka systems to be ugraded in the first round, said a senior Army procurement official Dec. 15.
The Army has about 600 Shilka air defense systems in its inventory slated for upgrades during the next three to five years. The entire effort is expected to cost more than $400 million, a Ministry of Defence procurement official said Dec. 16, with the price tag for the first phase at about $40 million.

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Some critical aspects of the program, the Army official said, include radar and computer replacement, electro-optical control system installation, and engine upgrades for the vehicles that carry the systems.
“The basic aim of the upgrade is to extend the life of the 25-year-old Shilka air defense systems by at least 20 years,� he said.
New Detectors, Computers Sought
The Army’s new requirements for the system include detection of targets as low as 30 meters in altitude; a fire-control computer compatible with fire control systems that are based on radar as well as electro-optical devices; and an electro-optical tracking system, the Defence Ministry official said.
Another requirement pertains to the ability of the upgraded Shilka systems to be functional in temperatures ranging from minus 40 degrees Celsius to 55 degrees Celsius, and to be able to perform in plains and semi-desert terrain.
The MoD will be very careful in selecting a vendor that can guarantee a continuous supply of spare parts after the upgrades are complete, the ministry official said.
An executive of Russia’s arms export agency, Rosoboronexport, said Dec. 11 that his company has sent its offer to do the Shilka upgrades for the Army. The proposal includes installation of combat control systems, and a gun with advanced search capabilities and increased fire accuracy, reduced vehicle signature, increased vehicle mobility and improved life support, the executive said.
Another Army official said Dec. 16 that there are more than 1,500 pieces of ZSU-23-4 Quad and L-70 air defense systems in the service’s inventory. They are spread across India, yet several are sitting dormant due to lack of spare parts and age, the official said.
E
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India Tests Surface-to-Air Missile Three Times in Two Days
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India tested its Trishul short-range surface-to-air missile — with an upgraded guidance system — three times Dec. 18 and 19 at the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur. Defense officials said the Trishul was fired from a mobile launcher at a moving airborne target twice Friday and once Thursday. They described the test as a success.
The tests were performed for the Navy version of the missile, an Indian Navy official said.
Under development since 1983, the Trishul appeared on the verge of being scrapped early this year, but the Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) reignited the program by incorporating a new guidance system.

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Indian Defense Ministry spokesman Amitabha Chakraborty said Dec.19 that the Trishul met its objective in this week’s tests, and that more tests are expected in the next few weeks to fine-tune the systems.
Earlier this year, the government said it would continue to build Trishul as a technology demonstrator but that it would not be used by the military. New Delhi later announced, however, that the missile’s guidance system had been upgraded, and a series of tests were conducted in June.
A DRDO scientist said everything is going well and that the missile will be introduced into the defense forces, but he did not specify when.
The Trishul missile was designed for use by all three branches of the Indian defense forces — against low-flying aircraft by the Army and Air Force, and against sea-skimming missiles by the Navy. The solid-fuel-propelled missile has a range from 300 meters to 9 kilometers and can deliver a 15-kilogram warhead.
Agence France-Presse contributed to this report from Bhubaneswar, India
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Indian Navy Drafts Plan for Industry-Military Partnership
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian Navy has drafted a plan that calls for local industry to help meet the service’s equipment requirements for the next 15 years, an effort the Navy’s chief of materiel calls a win-win situation.
“This would help private domestic industry to conceive and plan production initiatives for meeting naval requirements,� Vice Adm. Pramod Chandra Bhasin said, addressing a meeting of the Navy-Industry Partnership here Dec. 3. The meeting was organized by India’s largest lobbying group, the Confederation of Indian Industries.
This does not implement an official “buy Indian� policy, as local companies will still have to compete with international bidders to gain some orders from the Navy.

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The Facts:
Procurement Plan

The new plan, covering 2003-2018, is broken up into five areas:
* Marine engineering
* Electrical engineering
* Weapons and sensors
* Hull materials
* Other naval equipment
SOURCE: Defense News research

But under this plan, the Navy will help domestic companies identify spare parts and systems that they could manufacture for the service in the long run, and the service in turn would show preference to local industry. The Navy also will lend support to industry.
Bhasin noted that while the domestic industry faces stiff international competition to build naval systems, it should be glad to get a slice of the local defense pie, and the Navy for its part would not have to rely on foreign suppliers and the red tape that goes with international contracts.
Bhasin said the new plan, covering 2003-2018, would address immediate requirements as well as future, cutting-edge ideas.
Indian industry now has the chance to benefit from nearly every aspect of naval procurement, from weapons and sensors to maintenance and repair.
Under the first part of the effort, marine engineering, the Navy has invited private firms to pitch ideas for the development and production of propulsion solutions for ships and submarines, machinery control systems, auxiliary equipment and miscellaneous gear, including firefighting equipment, thermal-imaging cameras, protective clothing, acoustic enclosures and infrared separation devices.
For the electrical engineering portion of the plan, the Navy is looking for equipment in areas such as satellite communication systems, satellite navigation, automatic fire-detection systems, navigational radar systems, and command-and-control systems that can be produced locally.
The Indian Navy spends millions of dollars each year on weapons and sensor systems. Under this plan, the funds would bolster local industry and long-term research and development.
The Indian Navy today is completely dependent on steel from overseas sources, which accounts for nearly 40 percent of the cost of a warship, Bhasin said.
He added that the Navy today spends nearly $200 million annually on the procurement of machinery and spare parts alone, and nearly $1 billion each year on replacing equipment and weaponry.
Retired Indian Army Lt. Gen. S.K. Bhatnagar, chief adviser at warship equipment-maker Satish Kumar Bhatnagar TIL Ltd., Calcutta, said the concept of an Indian Navy-industry partnership is not adequate to bolster the local defense trade because, even for local companies, the Indian government’s procurement process is still too cumbersome for industry to find much immediate benefit.
Commodore K. Chandra Shekhar, assistant chief of materiel for the Indian Navy, said that bureaucratic hassles and red tape can be reduced through continuous dialogue between the users and the industry.
He said efforts would be made by the Navy to overcome procurement bottlenecks.
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No Final Price Agreement on Russian Carrier, India Says
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

Indian Defence Ministry officials said Dec. 4 that the long-pending deal for the acquisition of a decommissioned Russian aircraft carrier has not been finalized, though New Delhi and Moscow have agreed on the cost of refitting the ship at a Russian yard.
Defence Ministry officials said serious differences on whether to outfit the Admiral Gorshkov with the Russian Kashtan-M missile defense system or with the Israeli Barak system persist.
“It will take months to finalize the price of the MiG-29K aircraft for the carrier and the purchase of missile and anti-missile systems aboard the carrier,� one Defence Ministry official said.

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The Navy already has purchased seven Barak systems at around $40 million, and one system for its fleet’s sole aircraft carrier, the INS Viraat.
A Russian diplomat in New Delhi said Dec. 4 that the Kashtan-M system is equal to the Barak system in capability at half the price. The diplomat claimed the Kashtan system can engage four cruise missiles simultaneously.
The Defence Ministry’s announcement clarifies Navy chief Adm. Madhavendra Singh’s Dec. 2 announcement that the two countries at last had agreed that India would pay a total of about $666.6 million for the Admiral Gorshkov. Defence Ministry officials said that price — down from Russia’s earlier asking price of $1 billion — covers only the ship’s refitting by SevMash Enterprise, Severodvinsk, Russia.
Russia in October 2000 offered India the Admiral Gorshkov free of cost, but only if India agreed to pay for the carrier’s renovation in Russia
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India Seeks Link with Pakistan via Coast Guard
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

An Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) official told DefenseNews.com on Dec. 4 that New Delhi has proposed to Islamabad the establishment of communication links between the Indian Coast Guard and the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency.
The offer is part of a series of efforts, including a cease-fire that began Nov. 26, directed at improving ties between the two hostile neighbors.
“The communication links could cover matters relating to the humanitarian aspects concerning fishermen of both countries,� the MEA official said. Hundreds of Indian fishermen are in Pakistani jails, the official claimed.

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India also has proposed flag-level meetings between the two maritime forces every six months, the official added.
The communication linkage between the two forces would not affect the Indian Coastal Guard’s modernization program, a senior Coast Guard official said. Plans call for the Coast Guard to acquire 30 new offshore patrol vessels and fast patrol vessels, two hovercrafts, six naval surveillance helicopters and an undisclosed number of fixed-wing maritime reconnaissance aircraft in the next five years.

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Nine Nuclear Scientists Slip Out of Pakistan
Special SAT Report
KARACHI: At least nine senior Pakistani Nuclear Scientists have secretly absconded from Pakistan, the latest defection taking place as late as in July 2002, documents from Pakistan's nuclear power plant CHASNUPP, built with Chinese assistance at Chashma in central Pakistan, have revealed.
Eight of the nine absconders were "Senior Engineers" at CHASNUPP and one was an Assistant Engineer. Four of them belonged to the Operations Division of the power plant, two to the Mechanical Maintenance Division and one each to Electrical, Technical and Training Divisions. Many of them are CNS Fellows while others got their fellowship from Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, KANUPP. Six disappeared between February to October 2000, one in April 1997 and two in 2002.
The details about these defections were revealed in an innocent looking memo sent by the engineers of CHASNUPP to their higher authorities warning them that “many more� nuclear scientists were "planning to run� from the country because they were not getting a fair deal in Pakistan.
The Memo which gave a list of the nine absconders only speculated that these engineers had gone to USA, Canada or Australia but in fact they could have gone to any country as they left without permission or informing the authorities. Click to View List

There are some 250 nuclear engineers and scientists working at CHASNUPP. Most of them are unhappy with their salaries and other benefits and are thus looking for openings to leave the country quietly, as the Government of Pakistan would never allow them to go and work for some other country.
“The working conditions of these nuclear scientists should be a cause for grave concern to everyone as unhappy engineers at nuclear facilities could mean troubles of all kinds,� a retired Pakistani nuclear scientist told South Asia Tribune in Karachi.
The situation is ripe for any country needing their services to offer them a reasonable package and most will quietly disappear, traveling on passports which would not reveal their qualifications or experience. Pakistani passports normally do not mention the specific field of employment and it is easy to get replacement passports or even to conceal the real identity.
The engineers were getting so restless that some of them decided to write a detailed Memo pointing out the main problems being faced by them at the remote facility. Copies of the Memo were made available to the SA Tribune in Karachi by some of the relatives of the unhappy employees. Click to View Memo (copy quality not good) Page1 | Page2
A look at the Memo reveals that these engineers are being kept in Chashma as if they were in a “detention camp� because they are required to work 11 hours a day, seven days a week. “They work Monday to Sunday from 7.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. and sometimes many of them are called for emergency duty,� a concerned relative said, handing over a copy of the Office Order issued late in September this year. It confirmed that every one was required to work for 77 hours a week. Click to View Office Order
They are not allowed to keep their families in Chashma and scientists who are below Grade-20 are not being allowed even telephone facilities, the Memo reveals. Almost 90 per cent of the engineers fall in grades lower than 20.
The Memo of the Engineers warns that taking such heavy duty at such a sensitive facility could result in a major catastrophe. “As per IAEA, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and CHASNUPP regulations, (authorities) are bound to implement the 40 hours limit … Engineers are called for emergency duty and working hours easily touch 90 hours a week,� the Memo complains.
“Due to these extra abnormal working hours, the safety of the plant is in a dangerous position,� it warns reminding the authorities of the Chernobyl and Three-Mile Nuclear disasters in Soviet Union and USA.
There has been no immediate improvement in their working conditions, despite the Memo which shows that Pakistan’s nuclear manpower is now almost ready to disperse throughout the world, even to rogue nations needing their expertise.
The list of senior engineers who left the country for greener pastures mostly includes scientists who had at least two years of training from China and were highly qualified to run the power plant.
The cost of training such an engineer, as estimated by the CHASNUPP scientists themselves is Rs. 9 million per engineer in a 7 to 8 year period. Each person lost is a huge blow to the Pakistani nuclear establishment but working conditions and salaries are not being improved to keep them engaged.
For the rest of the world this is a scary situation as Pakistan could easily become the feeding ground for nuclear activities any where as Pakistani official wage structures are far less than any rich country with nuclear ambitions may offer, specially oil-rich states or organizations like Al Qaeda.
“The scientists of CHASNUPP have sounded the warning bell for the Pakistani authorities. They have to look after this sensitive resource and not push it to the edge. Otherwise it could mean disaster for the country,� the retired nuclear scientist warned.
SATribune downlaoded 23 dec03



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US Centcom Reveals Startling Data about Pakistan's Role in Attacks on Afghanistan
By Shaheen Sehbai

WASHINGTON: The US Central Command (Centcom) has provided startling official data of what General Pervez Musharraf’s Pakistan did for the US in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) against Afghanistan, allowing 57,800 US air attacks from Pak soil with the Pakistan economy suffering a staggering loss of US$ 10 billion.
This is the first official estimate of losses suffered by Pakistan, given by the US military high command and analysts say these figures could now be used extensively by the anti-American political forces in Pakistan to pressurize General Pervez Musharraf and his Government to explain his Taliban U-Turn and justify what Pakistan received in return.
With the upcoming visit of General Musharraf to the White House in Washington, or to Camp David in Maryland, as some Pakistani diplomats are now trying, this data will strengthen his case for more US aid as the Afghan situation has not yet fully settled as envisaged by the US. Pakistan's strategic and military help is still a key factor in containing the anti-US elements.
The Centcom figures are far in excess of what Pakistani Government officials and experts have been claiming, the highest claim being US$ 2-3 billion. In contrast, what the US has offered to Pakistan so far, a US$ 1 billion write-off of loans, looks like as spoon of tomato ketchup in place of a full fledged state banquet.
"This is a goldmine of political ammunition for the religious right wing forces, like the MMA, to blast the US and the Musharraf Government," one analyst said.
These figures have been revealed in a detailed review of Pakistan’s role in the operation and are specifically mentioned under the title “Effects of Operation Enduring Freedom on Economy of Pakistan� at the US Centcom web site, a huge resource about the US and coalition activities under the Command.
The Web site is still not complete but it gives a list of all the countries which contributed in the international coalition, 51 states named so far. Each country has been assigned a full page and details of that country's efforts and contributions have been listed. After Canada, Pakistan has the most data on the page. Many country pages, including that of Saudi Arabia, are still under construction. The web site is, however, up to date on all other Centcom activities.
“Operation Enduring Freedom adversely affected the already fragile economy of Pakistan. Major losses were caused to the civil aviation, tourism, investment and shipping due to rise in the rates of insurance,� the Centcom site data says.
“Besides this, Pakistani exports also suffered adversely and foreign investments experienced a visible decline. According to a rough estimate, Pakistan’s economy suffered a loss of over US$ 10 billion since October 2001,� it adds. Click to View Pakistan Data on Centcom Web site (This page was saved before it was removed from the Centcom web site after SA Tribune broke this story).
But more mind boggling are the other stats revealed by the Centcom about use of Pakistani air

and ground space and facilities provided for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). For instance the Centcom data reveals that:
- Pakistan provided five air bases/airfields. However in emergency planes could land anywhere in Pakistan.
- On the average 400,000 liters of fuel per day was provided to US.
- A total of 57,800 sorties were generated from Pakistan’s air space/soil.
- In order to facilitate launching of air ops into Afghanistan, Pakistan provided 2/3rd of its air space as air corridor to the US/Coalition Forces. By so doing, Pakistan had to reschedule/ redirect many of its commercial flights.
- Pakistan Navy provided landing facility to the US/Coalition ships at Pasni.
- At sea, Pakistan Navy operations/training were curtailed in order to accommodate and facilitate the operations of US/Coalition Naval Forces.
- According to the US Marine Corps Gazette of June 2002, the Coalition Naval Operations at Pasni were the largest amphibious operations in size, duration and depth that the Marine Corps had conducted since the Korean War.
- In all, 8,000 Marines, 330 vehicles and over 1350 tons of equipment/logistic were off loaded at the beach and later flown to Kandahar from Pasni.

Besides these, in the War against Terrorism, according to the Centcom data, up to October 2002, the US side made 2,160 requests (of different nature) to Pakistan of which action on 2,008 was completed. Likewise 99 raids were conducted, 420 foreign nationals were apprehended of which 332 were handed over to the US, 34 were sent to other countries, 38 were released and 16 were under interrogation.
Details of Pakistan Army operations in the Tribal areas of Pakistan have also been provided at the Web site. Some of the data appears to have been provided to Centcom by the Pakistan Government and narrates the compulsions of the Pakistan Army in operating along the Pak-Afghan border.
“Tora Bora operations provided a window of opportunity to penetrate these areas which was capitalized by quickly moving the Army in Tirah Valley which captured 250 Al Qaida/Taliban fleeing into Pakistan. Later the Pak Army along with FC extended its operations to Miran Shah and Wana.
“In return, tribals have been offered a sizeable development package. The region, being remote and under developed warrants bringing it at par with rest of the country in terms of provision of basic facilities like communication infrastructure, health, education and employment opportunities. Same analogy is being followed in North Waziristan Agency/South Waziristan Agency (NWA/SWA) to prevent slipping in of Al Qaida/Taliban into our territory.�
“In spite of ominous threat on Eastern Border, Pakistan is maintaining a sizeable portion of her strategic forces on Western Border. This clearly speaks of our resolve to support coalition operations against Al Qaida/Taliban elements,� it says.
The compulsions mentioned include: Shortage of manpower, technical equipment and funds; Threats of war from India due to unresolved Kashmir dispute despite UN resolutions and Indian/international commitments even after 54 years; Constitutional restraint of operations in the FATAs (Federally Administered Tribal Areas); Domestic sensitivity to allow operations within Pak territory by foreign soldiers; and Cultural and religious sensitivities.
Figures of Pakistani deployment of Forces reveal initially two Army corps along with large contingents of FC troops (para military) were deployed along Western border including some of the areas hitherto considered as no go tribal areas. A total of 60,000 regular troops and 55,000 paramilitary personnel were employed on sealing of western border, internal security duties and protection of various bases being used by US/Coalition Forces. Later bulk of the regular formations was shifted towards the eastern border due to Indian Military build up.
Because of very effective security arrangements ensured by Pakistan, not a single breach of security has occurred around the bases in use by Coalition Forces.

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Pakistan
Immediately after 9/11, Pakistan was prompt in declaring unequivocal support to US in its war against terrorism. It expressed its complete solidarity with US in combating terrorism in all forms and, was willing to provide not only moral but also logistical support and its military bases. Details of the efforts and participation of Pakistan and the adverse effects of following this policy are given in the ensuing paragraphs:
Support Provided by Pakistan for OEF. Up till Oct 2002, some of the specific assistance provided by Pakistan for Operation Enduring Freedom is as follows:
Provision of Air Bases / Airfields. In order to meet the requirement of US/Coalition Forces, Pakistan provided five air bases / airfields. However in emergency planes could land anywhere in Pakistan. On the average 0.4 million litres of fuel per day has been provided to US forces as well as all other services on the bases used by them. A total of 57800 sorties have been generated from Pakistan’s air space/soil.
Provision of Air Corridor. In order to facilitate launching of air ops into Afghanistan, Pakistan provided 2/3 of its air space as air corridor to the US/Coalition Forces. By so doing, Pakistan had to reschedule/ redirect many of the commercial flights.
Provision of Naval Facilities. Pakistan Navy provided landing facility to the US/Coalition ships at Pasni. At sea, Pakistan Navy operations/training were curtailed in order to accommodate and facilitate the operations of US/Coalition Naval Forces. According to the US Marine Corps Gazette of June 2002, the Coalition Naval Operations at Pasni were the largest amphibious operations in size, duration and depth that the Marine Corps had conducted since the Korean War. In all, 8000 Marines, 330 vehicles and over 1350 tons of equipment/logistic were off loaded at the beach and later flown to Kandhar from Pasni.
Summary of US Requests. Details of request since 11 September 2001 are as follows:
(1) Requests received 2160
(2) Action completed 2008
(3) Action in process 152
Foreign Nationals Apprehended. Two of the most wanted Al-Qaida terrorists, Abu-Zubaida and Ramzi Bin Al-Shaiba, were arrested by the Pakistan’s law enforcing agencies during well planned and carefully conducted raids and handed over to US authorities. Abu Zubaida was considered Number 2 man in Al Qaida leadership thus his apprehension has given a boost to OEF. Ramzi Bin Al-Shaiba is suspected to be actually involved in the terrorist attacks of September 11. Overall details since 11 September 2001 are:
(1) Total Raids 99
(2) Foreign National Apprehended 420
(3) Handed Over to USA 332
(4) Extradited to countries other than USA 34
(5) Released 38
(6) Under Interrogation 16
ISAF. To facilitate the operations of ISAF in Afghanistan, the Karachi Airport (FMB) and Sea Port facilities along with logistic support have been extended. A MOU in this regard was signed between the Governments of UK and Pakistan. Now that the role of lead Nation has been taken over by Turkey, the same facilities / assistance are being provided to them.
Pakistan’s Operations along Pak-Afghan Border
Measures Taken to Penetrate “Tribal Areas�. Tora Bora operations provided a window of opportunity to penetrate these areas which was capitalized by quickly moving the Army in Tirah Valley which captured 250 Al Qaida/Taliban fleeing into Pakistan. Later the Pak Army along with FC extended its operations to Miran Shah and Wana. In return, tribals have been offered a sizeable development package. The region, being remote and under developed warrants bringing it at par with rest of the country in terms of provision of basic facilities like communication infrastructure, health, education and employment opportunities. Same analogy is being followed in North Waziristan Agency/South Waziristan Agency (NWA/SWA) to prevent slipping in of Al Qaida/Taliban into our territory. In spite of ominous threat on Eastern Border, Pakistan is maintaining a sizeable portion of her strategic forces on Western Border. This clearly speaks of our resolve to support coalition operations against Al Qaida/Taliban elements.
On 25 June 2002, an operation was launched against suspected Al Qaida/Taliban elements in area Azam Warsak (Wana). During this operation 2 x Al Qaida members were killed, one apprehended whereas 13 x security personnel were killed including 2 x officers. This shows Pakistan’s resolve to not only “drain the swamp� but also nab the “alligators�.
Our Compulsions
Shortage of manpower, technical equipment and funds.
Threats of war from India due to unresolved Kashmir dispute despite UN resolutions and Indian/international commitments even after 54 years.
Constitutional restraint of operations in the FATAs (Federally Administered Tribal Areas).
Domestic sensitivity to allow operations within Pak territory by foreign soldiers.
Cultural and religious sensitivities.
Deployment of Forces
Initial Deployment. Initially two Army corps along with large contingents of FC troops (para military) were deployed along Western border including some of the areas hitherto considered as no go tribal areas. A total of 60,000 regular troops and 55000 paramilitary personnel were employed on sealing of western border, internal security duties and protection of various bases being used by US / Coalition Forces. Later bulk of the regular formations was shifted towards the eastern border due to Indian Military build up.
Because of very effective security arrangements ensured by Pakistan, not a single breach of security has occurred around the bases in use by Coalition Forces.
Current Deployment. In spite of imminent threat of war on our Eastern border and at peril to our security Army till today continues to retain 3 x brigades size regular force along with 40 x FC Wings totalling approximately 45000 troops along Pak-Afghan Border.
On Going Operations. A division (-) size force is operating along Pak-Afghan border with the purpose of eliminating suspected Al Qaida/Taliban elements and regular monitoring.
Effects of Operation Enduring Freedom on Economy of Pakistan. Operation Enduring Freedom adversely affected the already fragile economy of Pakistan. Major losses were caused to the civil aviation, tourism, investment and shipping due to rise in the rates of insurance. Besides this, Pakistani exports also suffered adversely and foreign investments experienced a visible decline. According to a rough estimate, Pakistan’s economy suffered a loss of over US$ 10 billion since October 2001.
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posted by promila 8:14 AM


Monday, December 08, 2003

 
India Enhances Defense Alliances with Brazil, S. Africa
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI.NEW DELHI

Indian officials this week announced they have signed a defense pact with Brazil and reached agreements with South African officials that will further defense ties with that country.
The accord with Brazil - signed here Dec. 2 by visiting Brazilian Defense Minister Jose Veigas Filho and his Indian counterpart, George Fernandes - will allow the two countries to collaborate on several military aviation programs, including air surveillance systems, an Indian Defence Ministry official told DefenseNews.com on Dec. 2.
“Brazil has a well-developed air defense surveillance system, and there is a good possibility of collaborating in this area,” the official said. “The two countries have also agreed to collaborate in shipbuilding systems and sub systems such as avionics, software and ordnance.”
The Indian defense minister also offered Brazil the opportunity to buy India’s indigenously developed Advanced Light Helicopter and Light Combat Aircraft.
Another highlight of the growing Indo-Brazilian defense partnership is the establishment of a working group that will formulate concrete proposals for defense industry and military-to-military cooperation, the Defence Ministry official said.
India already has decided to purchase five Brazilian executive jets for its Air Force VIP squadron at a cost of $162 million. Manufactured by Brazil’s Empresa Brasileira de Aeronáutica S.A., or Embraer, the Legacy jets will replace aging Avros aircraft in the Indian Air Force’s VIP squadron.
During the fourth meeting of the Indo-South African Joint Committee, held here Dec. 2-3, India and South Africa decided to explore joint development of defense weapons and equipment.
They also agreed on training for Indian troops by South African experts, an Indian Defence Ministry official said.
“India and South Africa discussed the possibility of joint development in field guns, setting up of ammunition factories along with India’s state owned Ordnance Factories,” a senior ministry official said Dec. 3.
India and South Africa have exchanged several defense delegations, and India has bought from South Africa defense equipment ranging from shells for howitzer guns to receivers for the Indian Army’s Samyukta electronic warfare program.
India and South Africa already agreed to establish at Nalanda, in the Indian state of Bihar, a factory to produce 155mm ammunition for self-propelled howitzer guns. Somchem, a subsidiary of South African giant Denel Ltd., will collaborate with India’s state-owned Ordnance Factories Board, Calcutta, to set up the facility.
The two countries’ delegations for the meeting were led by their secretaries of defense - Ajay Prasad of India and JB Masilela of South Africa
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No Final Price Agreement on Russian Carrier, India Says
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

Indian Defence Ministry officials said Dec. 4 that the long-pending deal for the acquisition of a decommissioned Russian aircraft carrier has not been finalized, though New Delhi and Moscow have agreed on the cost of refitting the ship at a Russian yard.
Defence Ministry officials said serious differences on whether to outfit the Admiral Gorshkov with the Russian Kashtan-M missile defense system or with the Israeli Barak system persist.
“It will take months to finalize the price of the MiG-29K aircraft for the carrier and the purchase of missile and anti-missile systems aboard the carrier,” one Defence Ministry official said.
The Navy already has purchased seven Barak systems at around $40 million, and one system for its fleet’s sole aircraft carrier, the INS Viraat.
A Russian diplomat in New Delhi said Dec. 4 that the Kashtan-M system is equal to the Barak system in capability at half the price. The diplomat claimed the Kashtan system can engage four cruise missiles simultaneously.
The Defence Ministry’s announcement clarifies Navy chief Adm. Madhavendra Singh’s Dec. 2 announcement that the two countries at last had agreed that India would pay a total of about $666.6 million for the Admiral Gorshkov. Defence Ministry officials said that price - down from Russia’s earlier asking price of $1 billion - covers only the ship’s refitting by SevMash Enterprise, Severodvinsk, Russia.
Russia in October 2000 offered India the Admiral Gorshkov free of cost, but only if India agreed to pay for the carrier’s renovation in Russia
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India, U.S. Boost Technology Ties
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India and the United States have agreed to formalize a framework that would enable New Delhi to obtain so-called dual-use technology from the United States.
“The decision can jump-start Indo-U.S. relations to new levels,” a senior official of the Indian Ministry of External Affairs said.
The decision came at the third Indo-U.S. High Technology Cooperation Group meeting held here Nov. 20. The session was co-chaired by Indian Foreign Secretary Kanwal Sibal and Kenneth Juster, U.S. undersecretary of commerce, the Indian officials said.


The framework on dual-use technology - meaning it has civilian and military applications - can result in allowing India to acquire civilian nuclear, space and other advanced technologies from the United States, an Indian Defence Ministry official said.
“The decision is historic, as it allows New Delhi to acquire cutting-edge technologies from the United States and the West.”
Sources in the Ministry of External Affairs revealed that under the framework, Washington has the right to verify end users of the technology.
“India will have to strengthen its export-control laws and educate its private sector about America’s strict regulations to stop nuclear proliferation,” a U.S. diplomat said.
The United States on several occasions has opted not to transfer to India technology Washington deemed too sensitive, which has hampered research programs here. One such program, the Light Combat Aircraft, was stalled because the sale of 40 General Electric engines for the aircraft was blocked. And several Sea King naval helicopters were grounded after the United States denied the shipment of critical components due to sanctions imposed in 1998. Those sanctions have since been lifted.
“We need a number of dual-use technologies for our ongoing important defense programs, such as Su-30MKI combat aircraft program and Lakshaya unmanned aerial vehicle program,” said Nalani Ranjan Mohanty, chairman of Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL), Bangalore.
Mohanty said that the United States is a pioneer in such technologies and HAL is keen to forge partnerships with U.S. defense companies for such programs.
The MoD official noted that India urgently needs “cutting-edge technologies from the United States and the West to help establish its nuclear command and control structures.”
He also said India is urgently trying to acquire information warfare systems and advanced command, control, communications, computers, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance systems, which could be established only with the help of U.S. and other Western defense companies.
“India would consider technology transfer as an important parameter for a robust military relationship between the two countries,” said Mahindra Singh, an independent analyst and retired Army major general.
The United States enacted the multilateral Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty in 1967, which restricts transfer of nuclear and related technologies.
India conducted its first nuclear test in May 1974 after the deadline for signing on to the treaty had passed. India is not a signatory to the treaty. This stopped the flow of nuclear technologies to India, so the country turned to the Soviet Union for defense technologies.
“India could enter into joint collaboration with the United States in the space program, including the military space program, once the framework on dual use technology is cleared,” the MoD official said.The framework must not be formally approved by officials and Washington before such collaboration can more forward.
E-mail: vraghuvanshi@defensenews.com .
India To Maintain Mongolian Weaponry
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India has agreed to repair and maintain Mongolia’s entire weapon inventory, including the upgrade of its MiG-21 aircraft, said a senior Defence Ministry official here.
The decision was taken Nov. 11 during a meeting between Indian Defence Minister George Fernandes and Jugderdemid Gurragchaa, the visiting defense minister of Mongolia, the same official said. This will be the first time India has ever undertaken the repair and maintenance of another country’s full inventory of weapons.
A large delegation of Indian defense technology experts - including ordnance engineers, infantry and artillery technicians, and aeronautical engineers - will visit Mongolia next month to prepare a feasibility plan for the repair and maintenance of all of Mongolia’s weaponry.


Baljit Singh Menon, deputy spokesman of the Indian Defence Ministry, told DefenseNews.com on Nov.11 that Gurragchaa and Fernandes in delegation-level talks emphasized defense cooperation to promote overall bilateral relations.
During the talks both the leaders explored the possibilities of capacity-building and training in areas including information technology, peacekeeping, and equipment repair and maintenance, Menon said.
The Mongolian delegation evinced a keen interest in peacekeeping and humanitarian missions, he said.
India and Mongolia traditionally have had good political and cultural relations which have been expanding since the restoration of democracy in Mongolia.
Gurragchaa, who is in India on an eight-day visit, will return to Mongolia on Nov. 18.
Gurragchaa was accompanied by Maj. Gen. Dash Magsarjav, chief of the Policy Implementation and Coordination Directorate; Maj. Gen. Choijamts Ulaankhuu, air defense chief of chief of the military’s General Staff; Lt. Col. Donrov Ganbaatar, foreign relations specialist; and Zala Ul, a counselor with the Mongolian Embassy here.
India Seeks Link with Pakistan via Coast Guard
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

An Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) official told DefenseNews.com on Dec. 4 that New Delhi has proposed to Islamabad the establishment of communication links between the Indian Coast Guard and the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency.
The offer is part of a series of efforts, including a cease-fire that began Nov. 26, directed at improving ties between the two hostile neighbors.
“The communication links could cover matters relating to the humanitarian aspects concerning fishermen of both countries,” the MEA official said. Hundreds of Indian fishermen are in Pakistani jails, the official claimed.


India also has proposed flag-level meetings between the two maritime forces every six months, the official added.
The communication linkage between the two forces would not affect the Indian Coastal Guard’s modernization program, a senior Coast Guard official said. Plans call for the Coast Guard to acquire 30 new offshore patrol vessels and fast patrol vessels, two hovercrafts, six naval surveillance helicopters and an undisclosed number of fixed-wing maritime reconnaissance aircraft in the next five years.
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Indian Fleet To Add Two Aircraft Carriers by 2010, Navy Chief Says
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

The conclusion of a long-awaited deal for India’s acquisition of a retired Russian aircraft carrier means that the Indian Navy, due to decommission its only existing carrier in a couple of years, will add two to its fleet by 2010, the service’s chief said Dec. 2.
The details of the Navy’s acquisition of the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov were concluded last week, with both New Delhi and Moscow agreeing to the price tag of $666.6 million, Indian Navy chief Adm. Madhvendra Singh said. Negotiations for the ship, which will be refitted in Russia, had dragged on for three years due to differences over the price and other terms. The final deal will be signed during an upcoming, but not yet scheduled, visit here by Russian Defense Minister Sergei Ivanov.
Singh told DefenseNews.com that the warship, armed with a squadron of MiG-29K aircraft, will be ready for induction in four to five years.


The Admiral Gorshkov will increase the Navy’s force multiplier capabilities multifold, and the service will be able to challenge its potential rivals more effectively, Singh said. The ship’s weapons package includes superior missile systems more capable than any Asian navy today, he added.
Singh also disclosed that by 2010, India’s indigenously built aircraft carrier, known as the Air Defence Ship, will be in service, carrying another squadron of MiG-29K aircraft. The Navy’s MiG-29K fleet will provide the service with a strike-fighting edge and enhanced intercepting capabilities.
The government’s defense acquisition council also has approved the 10-year shipbuilding plan, under which the Navy will order 30 warships from domestic and foreign shipyards, Singh said.
He noted the Navy today faces the daunting task of providing security for 2.1 million square kilometers of sea around India’s coasts, including 1,157 islands under Indian control.
With the beginning of a ceasefire at the India-Pakistan border in Kashmir, Singh predicted India now will face insurgency threats from the sea.
Singh said the Navy’s goal in holding joint exercises with foreign navies this year is to gain experience in curbing activities such as terrorism, transportation of weapons of mass destruction through Indian Ocean shipping lanes, and trafficking of weapons, humans and drugs. In the past year, he said, the Navy conducted joint exercises with 13 foreign navies, including those of the United States, Russia, France and Singapore.
Agence France-Presse contributed to this report from New Delhi.
Indian Army Outlines Big Weapon Buying Blueprint
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

The Indian Army has drawn up a blueprint for modernizing the service in what will be the largest procurement effort in decades.
Lt. Gen. Ashok Chaki, the Army’s deputy chief of procurement, said Oct. 28 the service must upgrade arms, surveillance equipment and command, control and communications systems to maintain an edge over its adversaries.
The 10-year procurement plan, estimated to cost around $15 billion, was submitted to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in October, a senior Army planning official said Nov. 14. The modernization blueprint also envisions a complete overhaul of existing weaponry.



The Facts:
modernization buys The Indian Army in the next 10 years wants to buy: * New advanced command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance equipment, and information warfare systems, as well as upgrades to existing systems. * Nuclear, biological and chemical equipment, such as protective gear, detection and alarm systems, modulators, vaccine agents, bio-agents and radio protectors. * Agni, Reflex and Kornet surface-to-surface missiles and Igla surface-to-air missiles, and air defense system upgrades. * Equipment to upgrade the night-vision capabilities. * Unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats. * Various versions of 155mm guns, rocket launchers and other weaponry. SOURCE: Defense News research
A Defence Ministry official said Nov. 10 that the MoD is considering ways to finance the plan during the next decade. Army officials expect the program to get government approval in December, with bids being solicited in January or February. Deliveries could begin in June, they said.
Arming the Troops
“Our foremost priority is to modernize the Infantry and Rashtriya Rifle Units, which are engaged in combating insurgency and cross-border infiltration,” Chaki said. “The aim is to enhance their lethality, survivability and surveillance capability.”
He said that the equipment procured for these units will include hand-held thermal imagers, short-range battlefield surveillance rad ar, unattended ground sensors, high-resolution binoculars, under-barrel grenade launchers, multiple grenade launchers and sniper rifles with night sights.
To increase troop movement, new high-mobility vehicles are being sought, and the engines of existing ones will be modernized.
Chaki said that emphasis also is being put on boosting conventional warfare capabilities, particularly in procuring thermal imaging sights for tanks, various types of surveillance radar, unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats.
India To Upgrade Missile Arsenal
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India’s sole missile manufacturer has been authorized by the government to upgrade the military’s aging surface-to-air and air-to-air missiles, a job expected to be worth about $15 billion over 10 years.
The Ministry of Defence in October authorized state-owned Bharat Dynamics Ltd. (BDL), Hyderabad, to perform life-cycle extension work on all types of missiles that have accumulated in the last 25 years in the inventories of the Army, Navy and Air Force, BDL Chairman Purusthottam Mohandas said Nov. 4.
He said trials on some upgraded Soviet-era SA-6 and SA-8 surface-to-air missiles have begun at BDL factories in Hyderabad and Medak.


Mohandas said BDL hopes to begin serial modernization work on these missiles in January at about 20 percent of their original cost, at several hundred billion dollars.
The Army has about 40,000 SA-7 and SA-14 man-portable missiles; Tigercat missiles; and SA-6, SA-8, SA-9 and SA-11 missiles that have piled up for the last 25 years, a senior Army air defense official said Nov. 10.
Sixty-five percent of these missiles are virtually unusable and require urgent mid-life extension, the Army official said. Upgrades will include replacement of propulsion and guidance systems and new warheads, all of which BDL will manufacture.
The Army’s request in 2000 to the Russian manufacturers of these missiles to conduct the upgrades garnered little interest, the Army official said. Because these missiles cannot be used, the Army’s air defense capabilities have been cut by 50 percent, he said.
Currently, there is no provision in the Army’s 2004 budget of $7.2 billion for refurbishment of the missiles, and special funds need to be allocated for the mid-life extension work, he said.
The Indian Air Force has the largest stockpile of SA-2 and SA-3 surface-to-air missiles, a senior Air Force official said. The service has about 10,000 of these missiles and nearly 80 percent of them are not combat worthy.
The Air Force five years ago submitted a missile refurbishment plan to the Defence Ministry, and the state-owned Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) was asked to begin refurbishing SA-2 and SA-3 missiles. No work has been done to date, the service official said.
A senior DRDO scientist said the agency’s current focus is on developing indigenous missiles, not refurbishing aging missiles.
E-mail: vraghuvanshi@defensenews.com .
India Aims To Project More Power
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

By 2020, India wants to be a world power with influence spreading across the Indian Ocean, the Arabian Gulf and the four corners of Asia.
Indian Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee said one big step in realizing this goal will be the coordination of military and civil government agencies.
“War in whatever form can be won only through multiple levers of power,” Vajpayee told the Combined Commanders Conference of the three Armed Forces here Nov. 1.


Strategy in the globalized 21st century requires synergy among security agencies, the military, diplomats and Finance, Commerce, Energy and other agencies, he said.
“As a policy, the present government under Vajpayee has been more open on India’s defense policies and its national aspirations than any government in the past,” Mahindra Singh, a retired Army major general, said Nov. 6.
Singh said that the government feels a need to create a situation where Pakistan is not considered a big nation in South Asia. India should expand its horizons globally, Singh said, to attain greater superiority in matters concerning defense, economics and diplomacy.
During the Nov. 1 conference, Vajpayee asked defense planners to shed their sub-regional mindset and craft instead defense strategies that extend beyond South Asia. He said the country’s security concerns extend from the Arabian Gulf in the west to the Strait of Malacca in the east, from Central Asia and Afghanistan in the northwest to China in the northeast.
So Indian Army, Navy and Air Force commanders are working on ways to project military power to more than 50 nations, senior military officials said. They are seeking more defense and military cooperation with Arabian Gulf and Central Asian nations, as well as India’s friendly neighbors in Southeast Asia. In the past three years, New Delhi has signed memoranda of understanding to share intelligence of terrorist activities and to exchange training of military forces, with most Central Asian republics, one Defence Ministry policy planning official said.
As a next step, India is conducting more bilateral exercises and exchanges and sharing defense advice with friendly nations. The military officials said the contact will help multinational operations.
The end of the Cold War and the disintegration of the Soviet Union jolted many of India’s 50-year-old strategic and security assumptions, Vajpayee said. Defense cooperation with Russia was badly disrupted, and many of India’s other relationships and alliances suffered. While Russia remains a close ally, its willingness to help India now is tempered by Russian dependence on the West, especially the United States.
“The changed circumstances of the Indo-Soviet strategic alliance greatly affected India’s room for diplomatic maneuver in the world,” he said.
India is not developing an offensive military strategy, a Defence Ministry spokesman said. Rather, the emerging global economic power is trying to forge greater military relations with its neighbors and emerging friends across the world.
“India’s concern is to be vigilant about the security environment in these regions, which will have implications on its defense policy ultimately,” said spokesman Amitabha Chakrabarti. “Our aim is certainly not offensive military projections.”
Big Plans
In the next decade, Indian defense planners want to:
* Improve military logistics in Iran, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan and Uzbekistan.
* Increase military interaction with Malaysia, Indonesia, Singapore, Thailand, Laos and Vietnam.
* Have more naval interaction with South Africa and other African countries, and Iran, Oman, the United Arab Emirates and other Arabian Gulf nations.
* Extend infrastructure, logistics and material support to Myanmar to contain Chinese activities.
Meanwhile, the three armed forces are preparing to spend up to $100 billion over 15 to 20 years to improve India’s strike capabilities.
Included in that spending plan:
* The Indian Air Force (IAF) plans to spend another $30 billion to add 360 planes, including airborne early warning and control systems, and modernize more than 200 aging combat aircraft, a senior IAF planning official said.
India’s no-first-use nuclear doctrine requires the country to deliver nuclear weapons and prepare defenses against possible incoming nuclear strikes by introducing missile defense systems and upgrading communication and surveillance systems, the official said.
* The Army will spend another $25 billion to buy tanks, air defense systems, radar and 2,000 self-propelled artillery pieces and to upgrade T-72 tanks. Some $10 billion will be spent on ammunition, said one Army planning official.
* The Indian Navy will spend about $20 billion to buy aircraft carriers, submarines, frigates, maritime surveillance aircraft and other ships and gear. The Navy’s 10 principal combatants would be equipped with anti-missile missiles; command, control, communications and intelligence systems; and cruise missile launchers, a senior Navy planning official said.
“India is not aiming to build overseas naval bases, but we are aiming to induct a variety of warships to make a strong presence in the Indian Ocean to make India a force to be reckoned with,” said Navy chief Adm. Madhavendra Singh.
Singh said Oct. 14 that fulfilling India’s dream to have a full-fledged blue-water Navy would need at least three aircraft carriers, 20 more frigates, 20 more destroyers with helicopters, and large numbers of missile corvettes and anti-submarine warfare corvettes.
E-mail: raghuvanshi@defensenews.com.
India’s HAL To Supply 10 Helicopters to U.S. Customs
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India’s state-owned aircraft manufacturer, Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), has bagged an order for 10 indigenously made Dhruv advanced light helicopters to the U.S. Customs Service.
HAL Chairman Nalini Ranjan Mohanty told DefenseNews.com Nov. 26 that the inquiry for the purchase came through Israel Aircraft Industries (IAI), with whom Bangalore-based HAL has a marketing agreement.
Under the agreement, IAI, Lod, Israel, would integrate the centralized avionics package aboard the advanced light helicopter for the international market.


Mohanty said HAL and U.S. Customs would ink the final agreement on the purchase in the next two months. The Dhruv helicopters will be sold to the U.S. agency for about $5 million.
The Dhruv is designed to perform military tasks such as assault, reconnaissance, anti-tank and anti-submarine warfare and is developed in collaboration with Eurocopter, Marignane, France. About 40 percent of its components are made in India.
Weighing about 5 tons, the Dhruv is in the same class as the Mitsubishi MH 2000, Dauphin, EC-155, Super Lynx, S-76, Bell 412, AB 139 and PZL W-3A, a HAL official said.
HAL has delivered close to 30 Dhruv advanced light helicopters to India’s defense forces, which in September placed an order for 50 additional helicopters. The Dhruv is powered by two TM 333-2B2 engines built by Turbomeca of France.
Vietnam To Buy Indian Weaponry Under Defense Accord
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

As part of its effort to increase military alliances in Southeast Asia, India on Nov. 17 agreed to supply a wide range of weaponry to Vietnam.
During a delegate-level meeting here, New Delhi agreed to supply Vietnam with an unspecified number of military communication systems and ammunition for artillery and mortar systems, and to upgrade Vietnam’s 120 MiG-21 aircraft and 100mm and 130mm artillery systems, a senior Indian Defence Ministry official said. The talks were co-chaired by Ajai Prasad, India’s permanent defence secretary, and Senior Lt. Gen. Nguyen Huy Hieu, the visiting vice defense minister of Vietnam.
Though the value of the entire package is around $600 million, the Indian Defense Ministry official said Nov. 17, India has agreed to accept only $300 million as a gesture of friendship.


He said the details of ugrading the MiG-21s and artillery systems - including where the work will be performed - have not yet been been decided.
India also agreed to train Vietnamese Navy forces at Indian naval training facilities, the official added.
In August, India also agreed to sell coastal patrol craft to Hanoi on a concessional basis, to train Vietnamese personnel to maintain and operate the vessels and naval weapons, and to help Vietnam build a warship in Vietnam’s Bason shipyard.
India by the end of 2006 will deliver to Vietnam two coastal patrol craft at a cost of $3 million each, to be built by state-owned Goa Shipyard Ltd., the official added.
In turn, New Delhi has sought Vietnam’s help in training Indian Army personnel in Vietnam for jungle warfare.
Baljit Singh Menon, deputy spokesman of the Indian Defence Ministry, told DefenseNews.com on Nov.17 that the further strengthening of bilateral defense cooperation - including increased interaction between the two countries’ navies and coast guards - dominated the talks.
India’s HAL Is Eager For Aviation Ventures
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India’s Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) wants to forge international joint ventures that will better position the Bangalore-based company to become an aviation industry hub for Southeast Asia.
To that end, HAL Chairman Nalini Ranjan Mohanty is looking for a Western industry partner for India’s ongoing multirole transport aircraft (MTA) program.
Mohanty said the partner would join the program “as an equity partner and provide expertise in the manufacture of avionics and engines.” He declined to discuss the companies being considered, but said a partnership agreement is expected very soon.


HAL in April 2002 signed a memorandum of understanding with Russia’s Irkutsk Aviation Production Association, Irkutsk, and Ilyushin Aviation Complex, Moscow, for joint development of the MTA.
The entire program is worth $350 million and is based on a 50-50 partnership between the Indian and Russian companies.
Mohanty said HAL in October invited Western firms to pick up equity shares in the program, based on individual investment.
HAL is looking for two partners, for avionics and engines, and clearance from the Russian partners is not necessary because the new partners’ shares would come out of HAL’s 50 percent, said one MTA program manager at HAL.
“We are expecting the project report to be finalized by end of this year,” the MTA program manager said, referring to a report HAL will submit to the Defence Ministry that defends the plan devised by the company and its partners.
Regional Aims
HAL is aiming, with such partnerships, to take advantage of India’s vast aeronautical infrastructure and inexpensive skilled labor to build an industry hub to serve Southeast Asia.
The Indian Air Force has projected a requirement of 150 MTAs, while the Russian Air Force has committed to buy 60 aircraft. The MTA also will be marketed to other countries, the program manager said.
Outlining the projected time frame, he said MTA will take its maiden flight in 2008 and go into production in 2009. Four MTA prototypes are slated to be manufactured at HAL’s Nasik facilities.
MTA Features
With an estimated price tag of $13 million apiece, MTA will have an 8-metric-ton cargo capacity. The MTA is being designed for a maximum takeoff weight of 55 metric tons and speeds of up to 870 kilometers per hour.
The flight range of the aircraft would be up to 2,500 kilometers with a 20-metric-ton payload. The range of MTA can be increased up to 6,000 kilometers with a 4.5-metric-ton payload, said a HAL engineer.
The aircraft will be equipped with a digital fly-by-wire system, fully pressurized crew cabin and cargo cabin, and have a rear cargo ramp.
The planned life cycle of the MTA is 60,000 flight hours, 40,000 landings and 30 years of operation.
E-mail: vraghuvanshi@defensenews.com .
India Tests BrahMos Cruise Missile
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

India on Nov.9 conducted the fifth successful test of its BrahMos supersonic cruise missile from a mobile launcher at the Integrated Test Range at Chandipur in eastern India.
“After achieving the precision guidance capability in the surface-to-surface version from a fixed launcher in its fourth trial on Oct. 29, the missile was test-fired at 12:04 [local time] to check its other parameters,” said a Nov. 9 statement from the Indian Ministry of Defence.
With a range of 290 kilometers, the 8-meter-long BrahMos missile carries a conventional warhead weighing about 200 kilograms. The two-stage missile has a solid-propellant booster and liquid-propellant ramjet system. BrahMos is the first supersonic cruise missile that uses liquid ramjet technology.


The BrahMos system is being developed jointly by India’s Defence Research Development Organisation and Russia’s State Unitary Enterprise NPO Mashinostroyenia.
The 3-ton missile can be launched from a variety of platforms, including ships and aircraft India and Russia each have spent $150 million on the design and development of BrahMos since 1999.
Indian Air Force To Expand
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, NEW DELHI

India’s Air Force chief said Nov. 7 the service plans to expand to keep pace with India’s move to become an economic super power.
Air Chief Marshal Srinivasapuram Krishnaswamy told a press conference in New Delhi that the Indian Air Force (IAF) would go from 39 squadrons to 60 squadrons over the next 10 years.
If India has a vision to become a major world power by the year 2020, “the forces must be capable of taking care of those interests,” he said.


But he said the expansion of the IAF was not intended to be aimed at any country, including traditional rival Pakistan.
“We are not Pakistan-centric ... Pakistan is meaningless to us,” he said.
India and Pakistan have fought three wars since their independence from Britain in 1947 and came close to another last year.
Last month, India and Israel signed a $1 billion deal for the sale of three Phalcon airborne early warning radar systems to the IAF.
Krishnaswamy said recent statements by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf that the acquisition of new arms by India, including the Phalcon system, would fuel an arms race in South Asia, were “propaganda of sorts.”
“It is a part of a campaign by our neighboring country,” he said, adding India did not have any territorial or expansionist ambitions. “We are not here to invade any country ... The IAF is more concerned about the proper management and maintenance of its inventory.”
The actual induction of the Phalcon radar system into the IAF would take about three to five years as the technology involved is very complex, he said.
The air chief said there would be a series of exercises with the U.S. and British air forces next year to sharpen the skills of its personnel.
The U.S. Air Force will visit India in February for exercises that will include U.S. F-15 fighters.
In July, IAF personnel will go to Alaska, where four to six of the IAF’s Jaguar aircraft will take part in exercises.
The IAF has also been interacting with its Chinese counterpart. Seventy officers of the Chinese Air Force recently visited India’s Western Air Command, the largest and most important of its operational commands.
The Indian and Chinese navies will next week hold
Russia, India To Sign Aircraft Carrier by December: Official
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, MOSCOW

Russia and India plan to sign the contract for India’s purchase of the Russian aircraft carrier Admiral Gorshkov within weeks, a Russian defense official said Nov. 5, according to Interfax.
“All technical and financial issues on the Admiral Gorshkov aircraft carrier have been settled and the contract will be signed by December,” the news agency quoted an unnamed official at the Russian Defense Ministry as saying. “The details of the deal will be clarified during the Moscow visit of an Indian delegation headed by Prime Minister Atal Bihari Vajpayee.”
Vajpayee is to make an official three-day visit to Moscow starting Nov. 11, Indian diplomatic sources in the Russian capital said Nov. 3.


The Defense Ministry official said the deal would be worth $1.5 billion.
Vajpayee, who will be making his second visit to Russia this year, will be accompanied by a delegation of Indian businessmen.
India is Russia’s traditional ally in southern Asia. The two countries resumed cooperation in the nuclear power sphere following a visit by President Vladimir Putin to New Delhi in October 2000.
Indian Army Plans Massive Upgrade to Infantry Forces
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

The Indian Army plans to modernize its 450,000-strong infantry, a move Army officials called the greatest change in four decades.
Defence Ministry officials promised last month to spend $800 million over three years to make the infantry 10 times more effective by improving firepower, communications and surveillance systems, said India’s infantry chief, Lt. Gen. Krishnamuthry Niagaraj.
The moves, which are intended to help the 1.1 million-troop Army better face low-intensity warfare with Pakistan, are being directed by Army chief Gen. Nimal Vij, who presented his proposals last month, Army officials said.



The Facts:
Modernization plan The plan by Indian Army Gen. Nimal Vij, at right, includes the purchase of about: * 250 Korent-E Anti-tank Guided Missiles, launchers and 2,000 thermal sights. * 300 light bulletproof vehicles. * 1,000 Anti-Material rifles. * 1,500 84mm Mark III rocket launchers* 4,000 new-generation carbines. * 200 anti-tank guided-missile simulators. * U.S. Special Operations weaponry. * 450,000 rounds of multi-purpose ammunition. * Several thousand unattended ground sensors. * Several thousand secure walkie-talkies. * Hundreds of secure very-high-frequency communication systems. * 200 foreign surveillance radar systems. n* 8,000 under-barrel grenade launchers.n 2,000 hand-held thermal imagers.n 1,000 night-vision devices.
The last such overhaul occurred in 1963, in the wake of the war with China, a Defence Ministry official said.
Army leaders believe that future wars in South Asia will be infantry-centric, Niagaraj said.
“Our priority is to augment firepower, night fighting, surveillance capabilities, and give greater mobility and communication skills,” Niagaraj said.
The infantry also is building Ghatak [Deadly] Platoons, which will be equipped with special weapons to carry out special land warfare operations, added Niagaraj.
The new weapons would be lighter but provide a heavy rate of fire with more accuracy, said one infantry officer.
Extra funds also have been allocated to acquire new clothing and other important materials such as sleeping bags, boots, rations and bulletproof jackets, which will allow infantry soldiers to carry only 25 kilograms of supplies, compared with the current level of 50 kilograms, the officer said.
Nagaraj said the U.S. arms would be used for airborne and amphibious operations.
A recently retired Army general said the new weapons would improve knowledge of the enemy, allowing more effective pre-emptive operations.
“This will also work as a deterrent to Pakistani Army and Pakistan-sponsored terrorists,” the general said.
But he also said that the move would put a strain on cash-strapped Pakistan, which would seek more military support from Saudi Arabia and North Korea, ultimately bringing a nuclear arms race to the South Asian region.
The news weaponry, including precision-guided munitions, would definitely degrade the enemy, said Army spokesman Col. Anil Shorey.
SOURCE: Defense News research
Indian, U.S. Set Joint Exercises, Exchanges for 2004
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

Indian and U.S. naval officials during the Nov. 20 meeting of the India-U.S. naval steering group here finalized the 2004 roadmap for cooperation between the two countries’ navies.
Cmdr. Vinay Garg, spokesman for the Indian Navy, told DefenseNews.com Nov. 20 that the schedule of joint activities the sea services will undertake in 2004 includes port visits; officer education exchanges; subject matter expert exchanges; visits of high-level officers; and annual exercises such as Malabar, anti-submarine warfare exercises, search and rescue exercises and explosive ordnance disposal exercises.
Last month , the two navies also sealed a new agreement to increase cooperation through naval personnel exchanges and combined training exercises for U.S. Marines and Indian forces.


The naval cooperation for 2004 was agreed Oct. 13 by Adm. Vern Clark, the U.S. chief of naval operations, and Indian Navy chief Adm. Madhavendra Singh during Clark’s visit here. Singh finalized the roadmap here Nov. 20 with visiting Vice Adm. Robert Willard, commander of the U.S. Navy’s Seventh Fleet.
Garg said the United States has made an informal request for joint patrolling and monitoring of sea lanes in the Indian Ocean and securing the Strait of Malacca.
The Indian Navy conducts patrols of local seas, including the Strait of Malacca, independently. In specific cases, where there are incidents of piracy, the Navy and the Coast Guard join the navies of other countries in the region for joint operations.
However, the Indian Navy has never carried out joint patrols with a foreign navy.
The Indian Navy official said the Cabinet Committee on Security, headed by Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, will have to approve any joint patrols of the Indian Ocean.
Indian Coast Guard Compiles Wish List
Mission Area Expands for Maritime Role

By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

With its offshore patrol area increasing to 2.9 million square kilometers, the Indian Coast Guard will need around $700 million for procurement in the next three years to support its expanded mission, service officials say.
Defence Ministry officials here said the Coast Guard will get the funds it needs to meet security demands, including search-and-rescue operations, fishery enforcement and terrorist and crisis response.
“We are expanding multifold in view of greater off-shore security, marine environment security, maritime zone security and marine safety, scientific assistance and national defense,” Rear Adm. Sureesh Mehta, director-general of the Coast Guard, said Oct. 20. The service’s needs for the next 15 years were outlined in a procurement blueprint submitted to the government.


Mehta said the maritime service will be inducting medium-altitude ship-borne unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs), remotely piloted combat helicopters, medium-range maritime reconnaissance aircraft, new advanced off-shore patrol vessels (AOPVs), interceptor boats, advanced light helicopters and pollution-control vessels.
All will be procured within five to 10 years to meet current and new coastal security-related tasks.
Mehta noted that before year’s end, the Coast Guard will have inducted two interceptor boats, one hovercraft, one AOPV, an advanced light helicopter and four Dornier short-range surveillance aircraft. Some of these assets have been paid for; the rest will be paid during the next four years.
These new assets will help the service meet its new security-related responsibilities while rebuilding its capacity for other missions, the planning official said.
Looking Forward
Mehta said the blueprint included a plan for replacing aging aircraft and ships, as well as steps to bolster force levels and shore support infrastructure in the next 15 years.
The Coast Guard also will set up stations along the coast, Mehta said.
As for overall homeland security, the service will strengthen its 25 Operation Centers for more effective security in ports and waterways.
The present Coast Guard fleet consists of 55 vessels, comprising four AOPVs, nine offshore patrol vessels, 10 fast patrol vessels, 13 inshore patrol vessels, 11 interceptor boats, two seaward defense boats, six hovercraft and 43 aircraft. n
E-mail: vraghuvanshi@defensenews.com .
China, India Complete Historic Exercise
By BENJAMIN MORGAN, AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, SHANGHAI

China and India on Nov. 14 conducted their first joint naval exercises off the coast of Shanghai as part of a drive to warm frosty ties between the two nuclear-armed Asian powers.
Led by the NS Ranjit, a 5,000-metric ton Russian guided missile destroyer, the INS Kulish, a guided missile corvette, and the INS Jyoti, a tanker, the Indian task force cast off from Shanghai at 9 a.m. local time, an Indian consular official said.
Joined by two Chinese warships, a light cruiser and a supply boat, as well as helicopters, they conducted five-hour rescue, firefighting and anti-piracy maneuvers in the East China Sea before the Indian ships set sail for home.


“The exercises, aimed at ensuring and improving coordination in search and rescue at sea, will be a stepping stone in enhancing inter-operability between the two navies,” India’s Ambassador to China Nalin Suire, was quoted as saying by the China Daily.
The decision to hold the exercise was taken during Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee’s visit to China in June, when both sides agreed to bolster relations amid recognition of each other’s potentially vast markets.
The drill follows similar Sino-Pakistani war games earlier this month - the first time China had permitted any type of joint naval exercises as it seeks to raise its international profile as a legitimate regional power.
While the maneuvers are militarily insignificant the naval cooperation is seen as deeply symbolic for two countries still mending ties after a 1962 border war.
“Its historic significance lies in that the two countries are beginning to act upon and get to know each other,” R.P. Suthan, Eastern commander of the Indian Navy, told the Chinese government mouthpiece People’s Daily.
Chen Zhimin, a professor of international relations at Fudan University, added that the “the joint exercise signals a marked change to improve the relationship between China and India despite some border issues that have existed between the two countries for a long time.”
Since Vajpayee’s trip, China and India have redoubled efforts to finally demarcate their borders, including between the northeastern Indian state of Arunachal Pradesh and Tibet, the scene of their war.
Aside from the political symbolism, the exercises reflect China’s need for cooperation in the Indian Ocean, but also concerns about its increased naval activity in the South China Sea, officials said.
“China’s Navy has been moving further south, with heightened activity around the Spratley islands and extending ties as far as Brunei,” said one senior naval officer.
Ahead of the drills, Beijing sought to reassure its long-time ally Pakistan that Sino-Pakistani ties would not be affected, though Pakistan and India are adversaries.
“Both of them are good neighbors of China, and I don’t think the development of China-India relations will affect the friendly relations between China and Pakistan,” Foreign Ministry spokesman Liu Jianchao said.
Fudan University’s Chen added that China is keen to maintain its cozy ties with Pakistan but also needs to improve its often tense relationship with India.
“China wants to make sure a balanced relationship exists between the three sides,” he said.
Indo-Russian Missile Strikes Target in Sea Test
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI , NEW DELHI

The first Indo-Russian joint venture in missile development reached a new height with the Nov. 23 firing of the BrahMos cruise missile, which successfully struck a target in the Bay of Bengal, a senior Indian Defence Ministry official said.
“A prototype of the BrahMos missile for the first time successfully destroyed a designated target at the missile testing center at Chandipur in the eastern state of Orissa,” the official told DefenseNews.com Nov. 24. “The firing was successful and the missile, after flying on its planned trajectory, hit the intended target.”
The test was carried out from two Indian Navy ships, the INS Kalinga and INS Rajput, the official said.


The Nov. 23 test was the sixth for the cruise missile, which is slated for commercial production by next year. BrahMos, also designated as PJ-10, will give the Indian Navy an edge over China in the region’s waters as it is a supersonic cruise missile, one Indian Navy official said.
India’s Defense Research and Development Organisation and Russia’s NPO Mashinostroyeniya in 1998 established a joint venture for the development of the anti-ship missile. While the missile’s airframe, propulsion system and warhead are designed in Russia, its guidance system and software is designed at the Defence Research and Development Laboratory in Hyderabad, India.
Launched from a ship, the solid-propellant missile can fly to a height of 14 kilometers at Mach 2, or twice the speed of sound, on a preset trajectory. It carries a 200-kilogram conventional warhead. A sensor mounted on the missile enables a change of course during flight.
Officials here say the PJ-10 missile is being developed essentially to counter Pakistani Harpoon missiles and Chinese Moskit missiles.
Indian Air Force To Expand
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, NEW DELHI

India’s Air Force chief said Nov. 7 the service plans to expand to keep pace with India’s move to become an economic super power.
Air Chief Marshal Srinivasapuram Krishnaswamy told a press conference in New Delhi that the Indian Air Force (IAF) would go from 39 squadrons to 60 squadrons over the next 10 years.
If India has a vision to become a major world power by the year 2020, “the forces must be capable of taking care of those interests,” he said.


But he said the expansion of the IAF was not intended to be aimed at any country, including traditional rival Pakistan.
“We are not Pakistan-centric ... Pakistan is meaningless to us,” he said.
India and Pakistan have fought three wars since their independence from Britain in 1947 and came close to another last year.
Last month, India and Israel signed a $1 billion deal for the sale of three Phalcon airborne early warning radar systems to the IAF.
Krishnaswamy said recent statements by Pakistani President Pervez Musharraf that the acquisition of new arms by India, including the Phalcon system, would fuel an arms race in South Asia, were “propaganda of sorts.”
“It is a part of a campaign by our neighboring country,” he said, adding India did not have any territorial or expansionist ambitions. “We are not here to invade any country ... The IAF is more concerned about the proper management and maintenance of its inventory.”
The actual induction of the Phalcon radar system into the IAF would take about three to five years as the technology involved is very complex, he said.
The air chief said there would be a series of exercises with the U.S. and British air forces next year to sharpen the skills of its personnel.
The U.S. Air Force will visit India in February for exercises that will include U.S. F-15 fighters.
In July, IAF personnel will go to Alaska, where four to six of the IAF’s Jaguar aircraft will take part in exercises.
The IAF has also been interacting with its Chinese counterpart. Seventy officers of the Chinese Air Force recently visited India’s Western Air Command, the largest and most important of its operational commands.
The Indian and Chinese navies will next week hold their first joint military exercises off the Shanghai coast.

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