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Saturday, June 07, 2003

 

Kashmir inseparable part of policy: Pak Army

Press Trust of India Indian Express 3 Jun 03

Islamabad, June 3: Despite international pressure, Kashmir would remain an
"inseparable" part of Pakistan's national policy and a key component of
Islamabad's overall strategy, Vice Chief of Army Staff Gen Mohammad Yusuf
Khan has said.

"The international pressures notwithstanding, Kashmir shall remain an
inseparable component of our national policy and consequently a vital strand of
our strategy, he said while addressing the participants of war course at Naval
War College on Monday in Lahore.

Welcoming the offer of talks by Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, he however
asked the Pakistan military not to lower its guard in the face of the emergence of
the new peace process between India and Pakistan.

"The recent peace proposal of the Indian Prime minister is surely a welcome
step. But let me emphasise that as professional soldiers and sailors, we must
never let our guards down. We ought to be very clear that the only guarantee for
peace is our preparedness for war," he was quoted as saying by the official APP
news agency.

Gen. Yusuf also said that Pakistan Army should beef up its conventional forces if
the deterrence with India failed.

"We must be able to deter aggression and defend land frontiers of Pakistan.
However, in case deterrence fails, we have to maintain a strong defensive
capability to absorb enemy's offensive, inflict serious attrition, and embroil
enemy's committed forces.

"We also have to have credible offensive capability not only to retain strategic
options for ending the war on a favourable note," he said adding that Pakistan
needed to step up its indigenous defence production.
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Your Q, His A: Defence & Security Affairs

Jasjit Singh Indian Express 01 Jun 03

Air Commodore Jasjit Singh, Editorial Advisor (Defence and Strategic affairs) to
The Indian Express, answers your questions on strategic issues. Singh, a former
director of the Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis, can be reached at
jasjitsingh@expressindia.com

There are reports that the government is seriously considering sending
military forces to Iraq although the decision to do so was held in
abeyance after the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Security. Do
you think we should send such forces, especially since they would not be
under UN command?
My short answer is, yes, we should send (military and police) forces. There
would be costs involved and many complications could arise in dealing with the
situation where the state and society are in great crisis and chaos. The only
parallel that comes to mind is Cambodia, except that the UN was overall
in-charge there.

In fact we have normally insisted that our forces would engage in international
peacekeeping operations only under UN umbrella. In this case it is clear that the
Anglo-American forces would remain in-charge of the country for a long time.
Given the circumstances under which the war was waged, sending our forces
there would not be consistent with past practices. But there is no precedent to
Iraq in any case. We must, therefore, look at the needs of the situation
objectively and be clear about the central principle that should govern our
approach. There can be little doubt that what Iraq needs most is stability and
security for its people to enable them to recommence their lives.

A massive humanitarian assistance programme will have to be put into place at
the earliest; and this requires an environment of peace and security if it has to be
meaningful.

Should we help in such situation? Or should we stick to the rule of doing so
under UN only? UN Security Council resolution has already called upon all
countries to provide assistance for stabilisation and humanitarian assistance to
Iraq. A special representative of the UN with a high degree of autonomous
authority has already been appointed.

All indications are that if a stabilisation force were large enough, it would be
deployed in a separate sector (like our forces in Somalia). To all intent and
purpose, therefore, if our forces are allowed to function autonomously, they can
actually help Iraqi people to reconstruct their lives and society quickly, and the
potential for complications would be reduced.

Among any other nationality, Indian forces perhaps would enjoy the greatest
confidence of the people of Iraq. The actual mechanism of decision making at the
top, therefore, will need to be settled to ensure that the force commander (along
with an adviser from the MEA) has the requisite authority to carry out the task
efficiently and without undue complications and interference.

In my view we have a moral, political and humanitarian responsibility to go to the
help of the people of Iraq and not stand on ideological technicalities. Over 150 of
our jawans have laid down their lives in helping stabilise society and restore
peace in distant lands of Asia and Africa, and not merely for wearing a blue
ribbon or beret.

It would be sad if we do not face up to our responsibilities at this moment. It
would of course be worse, and humiliating, if we were to join a stabilisation force
in the hope of getting some crumbs of material gains in future.

There are reports that we are finally building a fence in J&K to help
control infiltration. Why did we not do it earlier? And will it help?
We have been trying to build a fence on the international border in Jammu sector
(where the terrain is flat) for a number of years. Pakistan has been objecting to it
and has regularly resorted to artillery shelling and firing in an attempt to disrupt
the process. The terrain along the Line of Control is hilly and progressively
becomes mountainous in the Himalayas.

But the bulk of infiltrations take place in the hilly regions of Jammu. The strategy
now appears to be to construct fences at selected places reinforced by
technological sensors to plug infiltration routes. This also means that the fence
could be well behind the Line of Control, in many cases out of range of
machine-gun and mortar fire. Fencing is a costly business. But as the fence in
Punjab-Rajasthan border with Pakistan showed, it would be a great asset in
constricting the flow of terrorists across the Line of Control. The earlier we get it
in place the better it is.

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Bad news for India’s N-programme

Traditional supplier of material and equipment, Russia, is under strong NSG
pressure

Amitav Ranjan Indian Express 31 Mar 03

New Delhi, May 30: India's space and nuclear programme may get hampered
as traditional supplier Russia is wilting under pressure from the Nuclear Suppliers
Group (NSG) to prohibit sale of nuclear material and equipment by member
nations to countries like India that have a nuclear programme not conforming to
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.

Much will depend on the bilateral talks between Russian President Putin and
Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee tomorrow. Though Vajpayee’s visit to St
Petersburg was not to be a bilateral one due to the presence of several heads of
states, Russia agreed to the meeting at the last minuteafter hectic efforts by the
Indian side.

Russia’s rethink on nuclear and space cooperation was conveyed by Prime
Minister Mikhail Kasyanov to Foreign Minister Yashwant Sinha during his visit to
Moscow in mid-May.

Kasyanov obliquely mentioned that Moscow will not be able to withstand the
NSG’s opposition to supply of dual-use nuclear and space technology to India.
Russia, which had been holding back the 40-member NSG for long, would not be
able to continue to do so, he said.

His message was that New Delhi’s continued opposition to sign the nuclear
non-proliferation treaty (NPT) ‘‘would hamper Russia’s ability to progress on
peaceful nuclear cooperation’’.

New Delhi has been banking, as in the past, on Moscow for finding ways around
NSG’s stringent guidelines that ban supply of nuclear and space technology.
One such support was the agreement on technology transfer for two 1,000-MW
light water nuclear reactors at Koodankulam. Despite opposition, Russia went
ahead and signed a pact in 1998 saying it was originally signed in 1988 and was
therefore outside IAEA regulations, which were outlined in 1992.

Kasyanov informed Sinha about the NSG’s new mechanisms which lend
transparency to supply conditions, making it difficult to circumvent rules. Russia
had no option but to abide by the NSG guidelines and further cooperation
between the long-time allies would have to take place under NSG norms, he
said.

With the US dragging its feet on partnering India on Trinity issues — high
technology commerce, civilian nuclear energy cooperation and space
collaboration — New Delhi may have no other option but to go along NSG lines
or search for new suppliers for aging and new nuclear energy facilities and civilian
space programme.


------

Pak Army needs tension with India’

Indian Express 31 May 03
Express News Service

New Delhi, May 30: The latest annual report of the Ministry of Defence (MoD)
has criticised the Pakistani military, squarely blaming it for having a ‘‘vested
interest in tension with India as it strengthens their pre-eminence in the Pakistani
power structure’’.

The report, which comes at a time when both the Prime Ministers have initiated a
thaw in bilateral relations, was apparently delayed when Defence Minister George
Fernandes returned from his Beijing trip and rephrased certain portions on China.
Reflecting the initiatives generated during Fernandes’ visit, the section on China
is significantly different from its tone last year.

However, the report continues to criticise the ‘‘patently manipulated elections’’ in
Pakistan calling it an attempt by Pervez Musharraf to consolidate his and the
military’s role in Pakistan’s polity. This ‘‘does not augur well for India’s security’’.

The report is also critical of the international community which has done little to
rein in the periodical ‘‘Pakistani nuclear sabre-rattling’’. This, coupled with
Pakistan taking advantage of a ‘‘favourable environment’’ in Bangladesh and a
‘‘weak government’’ in Nepal has led to further tensions between New Delhi and
Islamabad.

On China, the report reflects the new-found relationship that has been dominant
in South Block since Fernandes returned from his China trip. Unlike last year’s
annual report which focused on China’s growing military, this year’s report
speaks of India’s ‘‘endeavour to seek a long-term relationship with China’’. It
appreciates China’s ‘‘economic growth’’ reflecting the speech made by
Fernandes at the Chinese National Defence University. A spate of initiatives
taken last year with Beijing also find their way into the report.

The report, however, maintains a cautionary note on China’s relationship with
Pakistan and the fact that major Indian cities are within the range of Chinese
missiles. With China building submarine-launched ballistic missiles, this threat
has increased. The imbalance in nuclear arsenals continued with it being
‘‘pronouncedly in favour of China’’.

------



Wanted: 12,668 young officers

MoD’s report to MPs reveals a top-heavy Army


Saikat Datta


New Delhi, May 30: A Defence Ministry report on armed forces recruitment has
come out with startling facts: there is a surplus of officers at the levels of Colonel,
Brigadier and above and an alarming shortfall at the cutting edge of Majors and
Captains.

It shows that there is a shortfall of 3,659 officers at the Major (company
commander) level and a 9,009 shortfall at the Captain and Lieutenant (platoon
commander) level. The report which was circulated among MPs, a copy of which
is available with The Indian Express, reveals a top-heavy Army with fewer number
of youth signing up to become officers while the Army is acquiring an older profile
with a surplus in the pyramid-steep senior ranks. Officers above the rank of
Colonel are in excess, particularly in the fighting arms while there is a negligible
shortage in the logistics branch.

Figures reveal there is an overall shortage of 12,668 officers in the ranks of
lieutenants, captains and majors. A fact that is worrying the Army because
recent operations have revealed that the brunt of the fighting is borne by young
officers. In fact during Kargil, commanding officers of two battalions had to be
sent back due to health ailments induced by their age.

While captains and lieutenants lead platoons into battle, majors lead the assault
formations at the unit level — the infantry companies, tank squadrons and
artillery batteries which deliver the decisive punch in battle. The fact that the
Army is getting drawn into a counter-insurgency role, is also leading to a need for
young men ready for a career in the military.

According to the report, it has an excess of 25 Brigadiers and above, a
significantly high excess of 125 Colonels and 23 Lieutenant Colonels — officers
who are in the age group of 38 to 58, and past their prime fighting years.

Despite a brand new advertisement drive launched by the Army late last year,
lesser young men are signing up. From an intake of 2,345 men in 1998, today
the Army has only 1,911 officers to show for its officer-recruitment initiatives.
While entry through the National Defence Academy/ Naval Academy or as direct
entrants into the Indian Military Academy are fully subscribed, most other levels
of recruitment of officers have been found to be grossly under-subscribed.

If recruitment is falling, the Army has been grappling with media campaigns while
debating various schemes to help increase intake into the officer cadre. From
asking ‘‘Do you have it in you’’ in 1997 to its latest media campaign that does
away with the perceived negativity of the earlier one.

There have been other proposals in a bid to increase recruitment including one to
hold the Combined Defence Services and NDA entrance examinations in regional
languages. However the Ministry of Defence has only agreed to Hindi as an
alternate language to English. It is understood that the Army’s Adjutant
General’s branch has also debated the issue with some proposals to divert
candidates who didn’t qualify in the Services Selection Board interviews to be
inducted as Junior Commissioned Officers. However, this too was rejected for not
being feasible.
-----

Terrorism has forced a new world, no nation is immune
Indian Express 7 Jun 03

Addressing the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore on June 1, Defence Minister George Fernandes spoke on The changing environment: Impact on security policy and military doctrine. Excerpts:
Two features of the evolving strategic environment stand out. The first is the contemporary phenomenon of jehadi terrorism. The second is the danger of the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and their means of delivery by deviant states and/or radical non-static formations. A third which impacts on our political environment very differently but nevertheless forms part of the strategic calculus is an increasing unilateralism in the use of force.
The tragedy of 9/11 led to terrorism being acknowledged as the principal challenge before the global community. An appropriate collective response was the need of the hour. The emotional reaction was spontaneous but the practical experience has been more sobering. The execution of the war against terrorism, while impressive, has been far from consistent, the campaign sometimes confusing, the links with the elimination of WMDs and regime change leading to democracy unclear, and the final outcome still uncertain.
Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but 9/11 marked the watershed between its perception as a geographically localised malady and as a global threat. The Bombay blasts of 1993, which killed over 200 people in serial and synchronised explosions, constituted arguably the first major act of mass terrorism. But the event went relatively unregistered in the catalogue of terrorist acts. New York, Washington, the attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, Bali, Riyadh and Casablanca, among other such events, have driven home the global nature and reach of terrorism.
Todays terrorism is different in scale, selection of targets, causes it espouses and identification of the enemy. Its roots lie in a distorted use of religion; its target is modern civilisation and democratic values. Bali, Riyadh and Casablanca show that its targets are not only the non-Muslim world but Islamic societies as well. This is a matter of particular concern to South-East Asia, which, like India, has had traditions of moderate Islam. The intrusion of alien, extremist and ostensibly religious values, with militant pan-Islamic sentiments, threatens the harmony of their pluralist societies and the security of states.
The global terrorist finds refuge in places and regions where sovereignty is weak, in failed states and states where governments are neither legitimate nor effective. Or in repressive, authoritarian, alienated regimes propped up from outside. Some governments even use terrorism as a convenient instrument of state policy.
But though terrorism thrives in these nether regions, the networks of terrorism exist all over. Finances are raised globally, as are recruits. The very spread of technology that underpins the current surge of globalisation and modernity has also empowered the terrorist with a new lethality.
This then, is the challenge posed by terrorism: not just the terrorism of some misguided youth in pursuit of some lofty ideal, but the nihilism of the fanatic whose goal is not just to die for his cause but, as far as possible, to take civilisation with him.
To what extent can an open society protect itself from the malicious use of freedoms and opportunities that it provides? To what extent can the challenge of jehadi terrorism be met with military force and new military doctrines? The answers are not easy.
The dictates of security often offer no alternative but military force. Afghanistan is a classic case where the infrastructure for terrorism was removed by the plain use of superior military force even though the dangers of destabilisation remain. However, force may not suffice in all cases.
Terrorism has changed the strategic environment and the security discourse fundamentally. Its implications are likely to be every bit as far-reaching as the end of the Cold War. The frontlines in the war against terrorism will be different from the frontlines of the Cold War. Some countries and institutions may lose their importance; others may gain in prominence. Terrorism has forced a new world where each nation will have to take sides because no nation can be immune from it.
The second major challenge to security is the proliferation of WMDs. It is bad enough if such proliferation takes place at the level of states, of one state assisting another belligerent state in obtaining such weapons from laboratories or the nuclear grey market. But it is altogether a different proposition if such capabilities fall into the hands of deviant states or terrorists, or if political parties that share a fundamentalist ideology force their way through weak or defective political structures to find a place in nuclear decision-making.
This is a challenge linked to, but distinct from, terrorism. I do not feel we have evolved an adequate policy to deal with it. Indeed, the complications are such that it may be tempting to close ones eyes to its dangers.
The last issue I wish to flag today is the demonstration of US power in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. On the one hand there is the consensus with which the global community responded in the aftermath of 9/11, as reflected in the UN Security Council Resolution 1373 and the military campaign against the Taliban and al Qaeda. On the other hand, where a consensus has not been forthcoming, we have seen the US prepared to exercise its military power unilaterally or in coalitions of the willing. And yet, the problem of the longer haul after the military successes remains.
I make this point only to underline that while decisive action may be necessary such actions need a cooperative broad-based order to be sustainable. Absolute power has its own limits.
Side-by-side with such omnipotence lurk unexplained and unknown threats. The virus has become a prominent metaphor of our times and has, through the computer virus, crossed over from the biological sphere to the technological. While we modify organisms by transplanting genes from one organism to another, nature displays its own ingenuity and seeks its own revenge.
Viruses from the avian and animal worlds invade the human world, if some of the hypotheses about the origins of SARS or even AIDS are to be believed. As we think of the strategic environment ahead, and of the security challenges and doctrines that correspond to it, it might be worth considering the hubris that mankind finds itself in.
What then is the impact of this new strategic context? We have to evolve security policies that will now factor the transnational and domestic terrorist dimension as the major challenge to the well-being of society. Military capability and civilian intelligence will have to be synergised towards greater cooperation along the low intensity conflict-internal security grid. As we all know there is little of that at this point, both regionally and globally
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George to review Army operations
Indian Express 7 Jun 03
New Delhi, June 6: Defence Minister George Fernandes will visit Surankote and surrounding areas to review the Armys ongoing Operation Sarp Vinash against terrorists in Hill Kaka.
Fernandes, who will be accompanied by senior army officers, will land at the recently constructed helipad at Ranjati which served as the launch pad for the Armys special forces which spearheaded the attack on hideouts in Hill Kaka.
The Defence Minister will address troops who participated in operations against terrorists. From Ranjati, Fernandes will fly to forward areas to inspect ongoing work on fencing the 225 km stretch along the LoC to check infiltration.
Meanwhile, the Minister, after his successful visit to Beijing, has sent medicines and masks to China to battle SARS.
Fernandes asked the Director General, Armed Forces Health Services to prepare the consignment of 249 cases containing medicine and masks worth over Rs one crore, which was handed over to Chinese embassy officials.
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Another MiG goes down, another young pilot killed
Indian Express 5 Jun 03


Jaipur/ Jammu, June 4: The infamous MiG list notched another kill when a Type 75 variant, one of the oldest versions of the aircraft, crashed shortly after take off from the Uttarlai Air Force base in Barmer district of Rajasthan, killing its pilot Flt Lt Deepankar Singh Jamwal.
On a routine sortie, 25-year-old Jamwal left the base at 7 am but 25 minutes later his aircraft crashed in a field west of Uttarlai. According to a Defence spokesperson, the aircraft, attempting low level flying manoeuvres, reportedly spun out of control near Paylakalan village, about 50 km from Barmer.
Initial reports indicated that the pilot probably tried to avoid crashing into an inhabited pocket of Meghwalon-ki-Dhani. It looks like the pilot chose not to eject out of the burning aircraft and instead steered it clear from the inhabited area.
The debris of the aircraft was strewn over a large area but there were no reports of casualties on the ground. Jamwal had been flying MiGs for over three years.
His family in Jammu father J S Jamwal is Director, Geological Survey of India learnt of the loss through a TV report as they were sitting down for breakfast.
Confirmation of Deepankars death came around 11.30 am when they received a call from the Uttarlai airbase. Elder brother Diwakar Singh Jamwal, a Captain in the Signals regiment and posted at Chandigarh, had not reached home till late tonight. Sister Manmeet said the family had been trying to arrange Deepankars marriage.
He spoke to us only yesterday, saying he was going to be promoted soon, recalled an inconsolable Manmeet. The body will be flown to Jammu for cremation on Thursday. A court of inquiry has been ordered into the incident. Officials said the black box had been recovered and investigations were on. This is the second MiG-21 crash this year. In the last two years, 10 pilots have been killed in as many as 45 crashes involving MiG-21 aircraft a majority of them due to technical and human error.
Seven of the 45 crashes reported in the last two years were from the Uttarlai air force station. Three pilots, including Flt Lt Jamwal have been killed in the seven crashes reported from this base.
A couple of months ago, an upgraded MiG-21 Bison had crashed after take off from Ambala. The IAF has been worried over problems in the fuel pump assembly of the upgraded MiG-21. Critics have also pointed out that in the absence of an Advance Jet Trainer, young pilots have been at considerable risk as they are being trained on the outdated MiG-21.
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US for Indian troops in Kurd zone
Indina Express 4 Jun 03
New Delhi, June 3: New Delhi is grappling with the politicaly vexed issue of sending stabilisation force to Baghdad even as the US has formally indicated that it wants Indian Army troops in the Kurdish sector in Northern Iraq.
On the directions of the Cabinet Committee on Security meeting on May 26, the security establishment, after discussing the latest UN Security Council Resolution 1483, has come up with a series of options that makes the Iraq force option politically palatable. These options try to address the following questions posed by the CCS: Is there a UN mandate for the stablisation force? Under whose command will the Indian troops operate? And will Indians will be asked to fire on Iraqis to quell a law and order situation?
The security establishment here sees the UN mandate for the force in the operative paragraph one of resolution 1483, which appeals to member-states and not coalition partners to contribute to conditions of stability and security in Iraq. This means that, by sending troops to Iraq, India is answering to the UN appeal and not to the authority that is US and UK.
On the command and control structure, the broad thinking here is that the UN should impress upon the authority to look into the concept of rotational command. This means that establishment of a joint command structure between the sector commanders and the American Central Command headed by General Tommy Franks. It is felt that the joint command should be headed by a two-star general or officer of the rank of major-general, with the post being rotated among those countries contributing to the stabilisation force.
The logic is that a commander will be in charge of his troops in the clearly demarcated sectors following proper rules of engagement. However, he will be in touch with the joint command that will translate the authoritys action on the ground.
But South Block still does not have clear-cut answers to whether Indian troops will have to fire on Iraqis to quell the law and order situation. It was mainly this question that held back the CCS decision on sending troops to Iraq.
However, the outcome of discussions in the South Block indicates that chances of Indian troops firing on Iraqis are very limited, particularly when the deployment is going to be in Kurdish sector of Northern Iraq.
India has a long-standing engagement with the Kurds, who are semantically of a different stock than the Arabs and Jews in West Asia. After the enforcement of a no-fly-zone in northern Iraq, the Kurdish Patriotic Union of Jalal Talabani and Kurdish Democratic Party of Masood Barzani have been in control of these areas.
The two parties have been sharing the oil revenues from fields between cities of Kirkuk and Mosul in Northern Iraq and thus have little incentive in provoking the local populace against the Indian troops. All the same, if New Delhi were to send a troop division to Northern Iraq then it will have to deal with militants elements of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) led by Abdullah Ocalan and assuage the security concerns of neighbouring Turkey.
Ankara has serious concerns over Kurdish spill-over to its territory and has posted no less than 60 observers in Kirkuk and Mosul to keep a watch on the situation.
The Indian Army has already identified the battalions which will form a division (around 10,000 troops) for Iraq. While none of these battalions will be pulled out from Jammu and Kashmir, they will have a strong element of engineers and doctors in order to make themselves dear to the Iraqi people. But like the South Block, the Army needs a green signal before it moves into Iraq.
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Talwar-class ships to boost naval power
IndinaExpress 29 May 03
New Delhi, May 28: The Indian Navys blue water capabilities are expected to get a significant boost when it commissions three Talwar-class stealth frigates by the end of October this year.
The three ships, assigned to the Russian shipyards for construction, were delayed due to a glitch in the Sthil surface-to-air missile. As per the original contract with the Russians, the Indian Navy could refuse to accept the ship in the event of any flaw in the ship or its armaments on board. The performance of the missile was found lacking during user trials, say Navy sources.
In fact, in a bid to ensure that the delivery was made as per the contract, the Navy even pulled out its personnel sent to Russia to get familiarised with the ships.
According to South Block sources, Navy Chief Adm Madhvendra Singh will travel to Russia to receive the first of the three ships, INS Talwar, which will be followed by the INS Trishul and finally INS Tabar. The three frigates are expected to contribute to the Navys efforts to have a significant blue water capability. It will also give the Navy the flexibility to operate two ships under its Eastern and Western fleets and send the third for refit, say Navy sources
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Transforming defence for 21st century
Indina Express 25 May 03


Rep. Ike Skelton, D-Mo., laid out a number of objections to the Presidents proposed Defence Transformation Act for the 21st century. I respect Skeltons long service, but I disagree with many of his stated objections.
Here is why. Skelton argues that this legislation is the most sweeping overhaul of the Defence Department since the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act. He may be right but that is precisely the point. We are at this moment fighting the first wars of the 21st century with a department that has management and personnel systems developed decades ago, at the height of the Cold War. The threats we face today are notably different from that era.
We learned on September 11, 2001, that our nation is vulnerable to enemies who hide in the caves and shadows and strike in unexpected ways. That is why we must transform our armed forces. Our forces need to be flexible, light and agile, so they can respond quickly and deal with surprise. The same is true of the men and women who support them in the Department of Defence. They also need flexibility, so that they can move money, shift people, design and deploy new weapons more rapidly and respond to the continuing changes in our security environment. Today we do not have that kind of agility.
In an age the information age when terrorists move information at the speed of an e-mail, money at the speed of a wire transfer and people at the speed of a commercial jetliner, the Defence Department is still bogged down in the bureaucratic processes of the industrial age. Consider: we have more than 300,000 uniformed personnel doing jobs that should be done by civilians. That means that nearly three times the number of troops that were on the ground in Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom are doing non-military jobs that should be done by civilian personnel. Why is that? Its because when managers in the department want to get a job done, they go to the military. They know they can manage military people, put them in a job, give them guidance, transfer them from one task to another and change the way they do things. They cant do that with the civil service, because it is managed outside the Defence Department by others, with a system of rules and requirements fashioned for a different era.
The defence authorisation bill has grown from only one page in 1962 to a whopping 534 pages in 2001. The department is required to prepare and submit some 26,000 pages of justification, and more than 800 required reports to Congress each year many of marginal value, most probably not read. Since 1975, the time it takes to produce a new weapons system has doubled, even as new technologies are arriving in years and months, not decades.
We are working to fix problems that we have the freedom to fix. We have reduced management and headquarters staffs by 11 per cent, streamlined the acquisition process by eliminating hundreds of pages of unnecessary rules and red tape, and begun implementing a new business management structure.
But we also need legislative relief. That is why we are asking for:
• Measures for transforming our system of personnel management, so that we can gain more flexibility and agility in the way we manage the more than 700,000 civilians in the department. And let me be clear: The provisions we have proposed explicitly bar nepotism.
• Expanded authority for competitive outsourcing so that we can get military personnel out of non-military tasks and back into the field.
• Measures to protect our military training ranges so that our men and women in uniform will be able to train as they fight, while honouring our steadfast commitment to protecting the environment.
It is true, as Rep. Skelton notes, that the Goldwater-Nichols Act took four years for Congress to pass. But we do not have four years to wait to transform the threats are here now. If anything, our experience in the global war on terror has made the case for transformation even more urgent.
Because our enemies are watching us studying how we were successfully attacked, how we are responding and how we might be vulnerable again. In distant caves and bunkers, they are busy developing ways to harm our people methods of attack that could kill not 3,000 people, but 30,000 or 300,000 or more. And they are not struggling with bureaucratic red tape fashioned in the last century as they do so.
The fact is that the transformation of our military capabilities depends on the transformation of the way the Defence Department operates. This does not mean an end to congressional oversight. What it means is that we need to work together to ensure the department has the flexibility to keep up with the new threats emerging as this century unfolds. (LAT-WP)
The writer is the US Secretary of Defense
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Russian team pins blame on HAL for MiG crashes
Indina Express 21 Mayy 03
New Delhi, May 20: A Russian team from MiG-MAPO, the original manufacturers of the MiG aircraft, has arrived at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Nashik and are working with Indian Air Force to sort out technical problems plaguing the MiG-21 Bison.
It is understood that IAF chief S. Krishnaswamy initiated corrective measures after the second upgraded MiG-21 crashed near Ambala on April 7 this year. According to Air headquarters sources, Krishnaswamy wants the combat aircraft to undergo exhaustive checks before they are handed over to IAF for operational duties. The MiGs will also notch up extensive test flying hours before they join.
George to spend a
night in submarine
New Delhi: Defence Minister George Fernandes will spend a night in a submarine to learn of submariners’ working conditions. He will be a guest on INS Sindhuveer during his visit to Eastern Naval Command on May 24. He will also inspect the Sethusamudram project in Palk Straits. —ENS
Ever since the first upgraded MiG-21 crashed in September last year, the IAF has been concerned by quality checks conducted at HAL.
South Block sources said two workers employed at the Koraput plant were suspended after faults in engine assembly were discovered. IAF sources also said a Bison engine blew up in the plant indicating lack of quality checks.
Other indications of a slip up in checks was evident in the last crash on April 7 when the pilots survival kit attached to him, did not separate when he ejected. The kits failure to separate could be fatal to pilots during descent. However, pilot Flt Lt H. Garg, who ejected after take off, was lucky as his parachute was caught in a tree during descent.
Sources said the kits failure has been a cause for major concern at IAF headquarters. They are also worried of the problems with the fuel line assembly of upgraded MiGs.
Meanwhile, the Centre is still awaiting a response from Islamabad on Indias offer to resume ties in the Civil Aviation sector. According to MEA sources, New Delhi has sought certain clarifications before resuming ties. It is understood that India has sought a clarification on whether links included overflight facilities.

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UN warns of N-emergency
IndinaExpress 21 may 03
Vienna, May 20: The head of the United Nations nuclear watchdog agency warned on Monday that a nuclear contamination emergency may be developing in Iraq and appealed to the US to let his experts back into the country.
I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites, International Atomic Energy Agency chief Mohamed ElBaradei said in a statement.
US finds a cure for
radiation sickness
Washington: US military officials are expressing enthusiasm about an experimental drug — HE-2100 — that they say could protect the health of troops, police officers and emergency medical personnel who respond to terrorist attacks involving nuclear weapons or radiation-spewing ‘‘dirty bombs’’. The drug being developed by Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals Inc of San Diego appears to offer significant protection from radiation sickness, which would kill many more people in nuclear attacks than the initial blast.
‘‘We want it on the fast track,’’ said Admiral James Zimble, a top military health official who is president of the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda. Experts cautioned that more research needs to be done to prove the drug’s effectiveness and safety when administered to humans. The vast majority of new drugs that appear promising in animal studies never gain approval for humans. But radiation specialists said tests on this drug with mice, dogs and monkeys suggest that it will work in people and won’t prove toxic.
Military officials are encouraged by results from animal studies that appear to demonstrate that the drug offers protection when administered before radiation exposure as well as a few hours after exposure. It buttresses the immune system, in particular the infection-fighting powers of bone marrow, which is most vulnerable to radiation. Hollis-Eden estimates that an eight-day course of the drug would cost as much as $100. — LAT-WP
He said he was especially worried about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.
He said the reports the IAEA has received described uranium being emptied on the ground from containers before they were taken for domestic use and radioactive sources being stolen from their shielding.
The UN agency has warned that stolen radioactive material could end up in the hands of terrorists who could use it to make dirty bombs, which combine radioactive material with a conventional explosive to spread it over a wide area.
In Washington, a senior State Department official hinted the US might be more favourable to the IAEA returning to Iraq on its own rather than under the auspices of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission.
ElBaradei first asked the US on April 10 to secure nuclear material stored under UN seal at Tuwaitha and was promised by the US that its military would keep the site secure. One of the sources stored at Tuwaitha is caesium 137, a highly radioactive powder that would be especially dangerous in a dirty bomb.
After numerous media reports of looting, ElBaradei wrote again to the US on April 29 requesting permission to send a mission to Iraq. He has received no response so far and said that the contamination could lead to a serious humanitarian situation.
There have already been media reports that residents near Tuwaitha have exhibited radiation sickness symptoms. (Reuters














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Defense News
June 06, 2003
Planners Laud Indian Soldier Idea
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
An Indian Army blueprint to equip the future infantry soldier has found overwhelming acceptance among military planners here, a senior Indian Ministry of Defence official said June 2.
The plan, which ministry officials said will cost about $5 billion in the next 20 years, was submitted to the MoD in January. The senior official said the price tag would not be an obstacle.
“The future requirement would be of an effective military response through rapid deployment of a capable force,” the official said. “As such, the infantry soldier must be capable of operating in the information age battlespace through harmonization of surveillance capabilities.”
While the plan has been with military planners in the MoD since January, some details were disclosed last week. It is not known when the plan will get the final blessing of the MoD. Once it is approved — a decision that would not be made public — the plan will be executed over the 20-year period.
----
Defense News
June 06, 2003
Russian Team To Oversee MiG Upgrades in India
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
India has contracted a team from Moscow-based Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RSK MiG) to inspect MiG fighter parts being used to upgrade the jets at Indian aircraft manufacturing facilities. The move came in the wake of several crashes of upgraded MiG aircraft flown by the Indian Air Force, primarily MiG-21 fighters.
A 25-member RSK-MiG team arrived at Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) MiG facilities in Nasik the week of June 2 at the behest of Air Chief Marshal Sriniwaspuram Krishnaswamy, after the April crash of a newly upgraded MiG-21 bis aircraft. The cost for the team’s work was not disclosed, but the program is expected to stay in place for the next three months.
The crashes sparked controversy here over the quality of the spare parts used and the integration work done by HAL to upgrade the MiGs for the Air Force.
See full story in the June 9, 2003, issue of Defense News.
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Inspectors Rap India’s Import Procedures
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
India’s anti-corruption agency, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), cites potential problems in the way military equipment is procured from overseas markets.
The CVC’s list of so-called lapses was sent in early April to Defence Minister George Fernandes for his review. Defence Ministry officials here said they fear the CVC’s observations will lead to the beauracracy taking an overly cautious approach to defense spending, which in turn would slow significantly the pace of procurement, worth around $2 billion a year.
After the government-defense industry scandal of 2001, Fernandes ordered the CVC to investigate all procurement deals since 1989.
“The lapses were noticed by the CVC after scrutiny of over 1,000 defense files pertaining to procurement of arms and equipment from overseas markets” since 1989, a CVC official said May 26. A Defence Ministry official said the ministry has yet to issue its response or plan of action in the wake of the CVC observations. Ministry officials said Fernandes will schedule a meeting soon with CVC chief P. Shankar to discuss the report.
See full story in the June 2, 2003, issue of Defense News.

posted by promila 11:34 PM

 

Kashmir inseparable part of policy: Pak Army

Press Trust of India Indian Express 3 Jun 03

Islamabad, June 3: Despite international pressure, Kashmir would remain an
"inseparable" part of Pakistan's national policy and a key component of
Islamabad's overall strategy, Vice Chief of Army Staff Gen Mohammad Yusuf
Khan has said.

"The international pressures notwithstanding, Kashmir shall remain an
inseparable component of our national policy and consequently a vital strand of
our strategy, he said while addressing the participants of war course at Naval
War College on Monday in Lahore.

Welcoming the offer of talks by Prime Minister Atal Behari Vajpayee, he however
asked the Pakistan military not to lower its guard in the face of the emergence of
the new peace process between India and Pakistan.

"The recent peace proposal of the Indian Prime minister is surely a welcome
step. But let me emphasise that as professional soldiers and sailors, we must
never let our guards down. We ought to be very clear that the only guarantee for
peace is our preparedness for war," he was quoted as saying by the official APP
news agency.

Gen. Yusuf also said that Pakistan Army should beef up its conventional forces if
the deterrence with India failed.

"We must be able to deter aggression and defend land frontiers of Pakistan.
However, in case deterrence fails, we have to maintain a strong defensive
capability to absorb enemy's offensive, inflict serious attrition, and embroil
enemy's committed forces.

"We also have to have credible offensive capability not only to retain strategic
options for ending the war on a favourable note," he said adding that Pakistan
needed to step up its indigenous defence production.
---------
Your Q, His A: Defence & Security Affairs

Jasjit Singh Indian Express 01 Jun 03

Air Commodore Jasjit Singh, Editorial Advisor (Defence and Strategic affairs) to
The Indian Express, answers your questions on strategic issues. Singh, a former
director of the Institute of Defence Studies and Analysis, can be reached at
jasjitsingh@expressindia.com

There are reports that the government is seriously considering sending
military forces to Iraq although the decision to do so was held in
abeyance after the meeting of the Cabinet Committee on Security. Do
you think we should send such forces, especially since they would not be
under UN command?
My short answer is, yes, we should send (military and police) forces. There
would be costs involved and many complications could arise in dealing with the
situation where the state and society are in great crisis and chaos. The only
parallel that comes to mind is Cambodia, except that the UN was overall
in-charge there.

In fact we have normally insisted that our forces would engage in international
peacekeeping operations only under UN umbrella. In this case it is clear that the
Anglo-American forces would remain in-charge of the country for a long time.
Given the circumstances under which the war was waged, sending our forces
there would not be consistent with past practices. But there is no precedent to
Iraq in any case. We must, therefore, look at the needs of the situation
objectively and be clear about the central principle that should govern our
approach. There can be little doubt that what Iraq needs most is stability and
security for its people to enable them to recommence their lives.

A massive humanitarian assistance programme will have to be put into place at
the earliest; and this requires an environment of peace and security if it has to be
meaningful.

Should we help in such situation? Or should we stick to the rule of doing so
under UN only? UN Security Council resolution has already called upon all
countries to provide assistance for stabilisation and humanitarian assistance to
Iraq. A special representative of the UN with a high degree of autonomous
authority has already been appointed.

All indications are that if a stabilisation force were large enough, it would be
deployed in a separate sector (like our forces in Somalia). To all intent and
purpose, therefore, if our forces are allowed to function autonomously, they can
actually help Iraqi people to reconstruct their lives and society quickly, and the
potential for complications would be reduced.

Among any other nationality, Indian forces perhaps would enjoy the greatest
confidence of the people of Iraq. The actual mechanism of decision making at the
top, therefore, will need to be settled to ensure that the force commander (along
with an adviser from the MEA) has the requisite authority to carry out the task
efficiently and without undue complications and interference.

In my view we have a moral, political and humanitarian responsibility to go to the
help of the people of Iraq and not stand on ideological technicalities. Over 150 of
our jawans have laid down their lives in helping stabilise society and restore
peace in distant lands of Asia and Africa, and not merely for wearing a blue
ribbon or beret.

It would be sad if we do not face up to our responsibilities at this moment. It
would of course be worse, and humiliating, if we were to join a stabilisation force
in the hope of getting some crumbs of material gains in future.

There are reports that we are finally building a fence in J&K to help
control infiltration. Why did we not do it earlier? And will it help?
We have been trying to build a fence on the international border in Jammu sector
(where the terrain is flat) for a number of years. Pakistan has been objecting to it
and has regularly resorted to artillery shelling and firing in an attempt to disrupt
the process. The terrain along the Line of Control is hilly and progressively
becomes mountainous in the Himalayas.

But the bulk of infiltrations take place in the hilly regions of Jammu. The strategy
now appears to be to construct fences at selected places reinforced by
technological sensors to plug infiltration routes. This also means that the fence
could be well behind the Line of Control, in many cases out of range of
machine-gun and mortar fire. Fencing is a costly business. But as the fence in
Punjab-Rajasthan border with Pakistan showed, it would be a great asset in
constricting the flow of terrorists across the Line of Control. The earlier we get it
in place the better it is.

-------



Bad news for India’s N-programme

Traditional supplier of material and equipment, Russia, is under strong NSG
pressure

Amitav Ranjan Indian Express 31 Mar 03

New Delhi, May 30: India's space and nuclear programme may get hampered
as traditional supplier Russia is wilting under pressure from the Nuclear Suppliers
Group (NSG) to prohibit sale of nuclear material and equipment by member
nations to countries like India that have a nuclear programme not conforming to
International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA) safeguards.

Much will depend on the bilateral talks between Russian President Putin and
Prime Minister A.B. Vajpayee tomorrow. Though Vajpayee’s visit to St
Petersburg was not to be a bilateral one due to the presence of several heads of
states, Russia agreed to the meeting at the last minuteafter hectic efforts by the
Indian side.

Russia’s rethink on nuclear and space cooperation was conveyed by Prime
Minister Mikhail Kasyanov to Foreign Minister Yashwant Sinha during his visit to
Moscow in mid-May.

Kasyanov obliquely mentioned that Moscow will not be able to withstand the
NSG’s opposition to supply of dual-use nuclear and space technology to India.
Russia, which had been holding back the 40-member NSG for long, would not be
able to continue to do so, he said.

His message was that New Delhi’s continued opposition to sign the nuclear
non-proliferation treaty (NPT) ‘‘would hamper Russia’s ability to progress on
peaceful nuclear cooperation’’.

New Delhi has been banking, as in the past, on Moscow for finding ways around
NSG’s stringent guidelines that ban supply of nuclear and space technology.
One such support was the agreement on technology transfer for two 1,000-MW
light water nuclear reactors at Koodankulam. Despite opposition, Russia went
ahead and signed a pact in 1998 saying it was originally signed in 1988 and was
therefore outside IAEA regulations, which were outlined in 1992.

Kasyanov informed Sinha about the NSG’s new mechanisms which lend
transparency to supply conditions, making it difficult to circumvent rules. Russia
had no option but to abide by the NSG guidelines and further cooperation
between the long-time allies would have to take place under NSG norms, he
said.

With the US dragging its feet on partnering India on Trinity issues — high
technology commerce, civilian nuclear energy cooperation and space
collaboration — New Delhi may have no other option but to go along NSG lines
or search for new suppliers for aging and new nuclear energy facilities and civilian
space programme.


------

Pak Army needs tension with India’

Indian Express 31 May 03
Express News Service

New Delhi, May 30: The latest annual report of the Ministry of Defence (MoD)
has criticised the Pakistani military, squarely blaming it for having a ‘‘vested
interest in tension with India as it strengthens their pre-eminence in the Pakistani
power structure’’.

The report, which comes at a time when both the Prime Ministers have initiated a
thaw in bilateral relations, was apparently delayed when Defence Minister George
Fernandes returned from his Beijing trip and rephrased certain portions on China.
Reflecting the initiatives generated during Fernandes’ visit, the section on China
is significantly different from its tone last year.

However, the report continues to criticise the ‘‘patently manipulated elections’’ in
Pakistan calling it an attempt by Pervez Musharraf to consolidate his and the
military’s role in Pakistan’s polity. This ‘‘does not augur well for India’s security’’.

The report is also critical of the international community which has done little to
rein in the periodical ‘‘Pakistani nuclear sabre-rattling’’. This, coupled with
Pakistan taking advantage of a ‘‘favourable environment’’ in Bangladesh and a
‘‘weak government’’ in Nepal has led to further tensions between New Delhi and
Islamabad.

On China, the report reflects the new-found relationship that has been dominant
in South Block since Fernandes returned from his China trip. Unlike last year’s
annual report which focused on China’s growing military, this year’s report
speaks of India’s ‘‘endeavour to seek a long-term relationship with China’’. It
appreciates China’s ‘‘economic growth’’ reflecting the speech made by
Fernandes at the Chinese National Defence University. A spate of initiatives
taken last year with Beijing also find their way into the report.

The report, however, maintains a cautionary note on China’s relationship with
Pakistan and the fact that major Indian cities are within the range of Chinese
missiles. With China building submarine-launched ballistic missiles, this threat
has increased. The imbalance in nuclear arsenals continued with it being
‘‘pronouncedly in favour of China’’.

------



Wanted: 12,668 young officers

MoD’s report to MPs reveals a top-heavy Army


Saikat Datta


New Delhi, May 30: A Defence Ministry report on armed forces recruitment has
come out with startling facts: there is a surplus of officers at the levels of Colonel,
Brigadier and above and an alarming shortfall at the cutting edge of Majors and
Captains.

It shows that there is a shortfall of 3,659 officers at the Major (company
commander) level and a 9,009 shortfall at the Captain and Lieutenant (platoon
commander) level. The report which was circulated among MPs, a copy of which
is available with The Indian Express, reveals a top-heavy Army with fewer number
of youth signing up to become officers while the Army is acquiring an older profile
with a surplus in the pyramid-steep senior ranks. Officers above the rank of
Colonel are in excess, particularly in the fighting arms while there is a negligible
shortage in the logistics branch.

Figures reveal there is an overall shortage of 12,668 officers in the ranks of
lieutenants, captains and majors. A fact that is worrying the Army because
recent operations have revealed that the brunt of the fighting is borne by young
officers. In fact during Kargil, commanding officers of two battalions had to be
sent back due to health ailments induced by their age.

While captains and lieutenants lead platoons into battle, majors lead the assault
formations at the unit level — the infantry companies, tank squadrons and
artillery batteries which deliver the decisive punch in battle. The fact that the
Army is getting drawn into a counter-insurgency role, is also leading to a need for
young men ready for a career in the military.

According to the report, it has an excess of 25 Brigadiers and above, a
significantly high excess of 125 Colonels and 23 Lieutenant Colonels — officers
who are in the age group of 38 to 58, and past their prime fighting years.

Despite a brand new advertisement drive launched by the Army late last year,
lesser young men are signing up. From an intake of 2,345 men in 1998, today
the Army has only 1,911 officers to show for its officer-recruitment initiatives.
While entry through the National Defence Academy/ Naval Academy or as direct
entrants into the Indian Military Academy are fully subscribed, most other levels
of recruitment of officers have been found to be grossly under-subscribed.

If recruitment is falling, the Army has been grappling with media campaigns while
debating various schemes to help increase intake into the officer cadre. From
asking ‘‘Do you have it in you’’ in 1997 to its latest media campaign that does
away with the perceived negativity of the earlier one.

There have been other proposals in a bid to increase recruitment including one to
hold the Combined Defence Services and NDA entrance examinations in regional
languages. However the Ministry of Defence has only agreed to Hindi as an
alternate language to English. It is understood that the Army’s Adjutant
General’s branch has also debated the issue with some proposals to divert
candidates who didn’t qualify in the Services Selection Board interviews to be
inducted as Junior Commissioned Officers. However, this too was rejected for not
being feasible.
-----

Terrorism has forced a new world, no nation is immune
Indian Express 7 Jun 03

Addressing the Shangri-La Dialogue in Singapore on June 1, Defence Minister George Fernandes spoke on The changing environment: Impact on security policy and military doctrine. Excerpts:
Two features of the evolving strategic environment stand out. The first is the contemporary phenomenon of jehadi terrorism. The second is the danger of the acquisition of weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) and their means of delivery by deviant states and/or radical non-static formations. A third which impacts on our political environment very differently but nevertheless forms part of the strategic calculus is an increasing unilateralism in the use of force.
The tragedy of 9/11 led to terrorism being acknowledged as the principal challenge before the global community. An appropriate collective response was the need of the hour. The emotional reaction was spontaneous but the practical experience has been more sobering. The execution of the war against terrorism, while impressive, has been far from consistent, the campaign sometimes confusing, the links with the elimination of WMDs and regime change leading to democracy unclear, and the final outcome still uncertain.
Terrorism is not a new phenomenon, but 9/11 marked the watershed between its perception as a geographically localised malady and as a global threat. The Bombay blasts of 1993, which killed over 200 people in serial and synchronised explosions, constituted arguably the first major act of mass terrorism. But the event went relatively unregistered in the catalogue of terrorist acts. New York, Washington, the attack on the Indian Parliament in December 2001, Bali, Riyadh and Casablanca, among other such events, have driven home the global nature and reach of terrorism.
Todays terrorism is different in scale, selection of targets, causes it espouses and identification of the enemy. Its roots lie in a distorted use of religion; its target is modern civilisation and democratic values. Bali, Riyadh and Casablanca show that its targets are not only the non-Muslim world but Islamic societies as well. This is a matter of particular concern to South-East Asia, which, like India, has had traditions of moderate Islam. The intrusion of alien, extremist and ostensibly religious values, with militant pan-Islamic sentiments, threatens the harmony of their pluralist societies and the security of states.
The global terrorist finds refuge in places and regions where sovereignty is weak, in failed states and states where governments are neither legitimate nor effective. Or in repressive, authoritarian, alienated regimes propped up from outside. Some governments even use terrorism as a convenient instrument of state policy.
But though terrorism thrives in these nether regions, the networks of terrorism exist all over. Finances are raised globally, as are recruits. The very spread of technology that underpins the current surge of globalisation and modernity has also empowered the terrorist with a new lethality.
This then, is the challenge posed by terrorism: not just the terrorism of some misguided youth in pursuit of some lofty ideal, but the nihilism of the fanatic whose goal is not just to die for his cause but, as far as possible, to take civilisation with him.
To what extent can an open society protect itself from the malicious use of freedoms and opportunities that it provides? To what extent can the challenge of jehadi terrorism be met with military force and new military doctrines? The answers are not easy.
The dictates of security often offer no alternative but military force. Afghanistan is a classic case where the infrastructure for terrorism was removed by the plain use of superior military force even though the dangers of destabilisation remain. However, force may not suffice in all cases.
Terrorism has changed the strategic environment and the security discourse fundamentally. Its implications are likely to be every bit as far-reaching as the end of the Cold War. The frontlines in the war against terrorism will be different from the frontlines of the Cold War. Some countries and institutions may lose their importance; others may gain in prominence. Terrorism has forced a new world where each nation will have to take sides because no nation can be immune from it.
The second major challenge to security is the proliferation of WMDs. It is bad enough if such proliferation takes place at the level of states, of one state assisting another belligerent state in obtaining such weapons from laboratories or the nuclear grey market. But it is altogether a different proposition if such capabilities fall into the hands of deviant states or terrorists, or if political parties that share a fundamentalist ideology force their way through weak or defective political structures to find a place in nuclear decision-making.
This is a challenge linked to, but distinct from, terrorism. I do not feel we have evolved an adequate policy to deal with it. Indeed, the complications are such that it may be tempting to close ones eyes to its dangers.
The last issue I wish to flag today is the demonstration of US power in Kosovo, Afghanistan and Iraq. On the one hand there is the consensus with which the global community responded in the aftermath of 9/11, as reflected in the UN Security Council Resolution 1373 and the military campaign against the Taliban and al Qaeda. On the other hand, where a consensus has not been forthcoming, we have seen the US prepared to exercise its military power unilaterally or in coalitions of the willing. And yet, the problem of the longer haul after the military successes remains.
I make this point only to underline that while decisive action may be necessary such actions need a cooperative broad-based order to be sustainable. Absolute power has its own limits.
Side-by-side with such omnipotence lurk unexplained and unknown threats. The virus has become a prominent metaphor of our times and has, through the computer virus, crossed over from the biological sphere to the technological. While we modify organisms by transplanting genes from one organism to another, nature displays its own ingenuity and seeks its own revenge.
Viruses from the avian and animal worlds invade the human world, if some of the hypotheses about the origins of SARS or even AIDS are to be believed. As we think of the strategic environment ahead, and of the security challenges and doctrines that correspond to it, it might be worth considering the hubris that mankind finds itself in.
What then is the impact of this new strategic context? We have to evolve security policies that will now factor the transnational and domestic terrorist dimension as the major challenge to the well-being of society. Military capability and civilian intelligence will have to be synergised towards greater cooperation along the low intensity conflict-internal security grid. As we all know there is little of that at this point, both regionally and globally
---

George to review Army operations
Indian Express 7 Jun 03
New Delhi, June 6: Defence Minister George Fernandes will visit Surankote and surrounding areas to review the Armys ongoing Operation Sarp Vinash against terrorists in Hill Kaka.
Fernandes, who will be accompanied by senior army officers, will land at the recently constructed helipad at Ranjati which served as the launch pad for the Armys special forces which spearheaded the attack on hideouts in Hill Kaka.
The Defence Minister will address troops who participated in operations against terrorists. From Ranjati, Fernandes will fly to forward areas to inspect ongoing work on fencing the 225 km stretch along the LoC to check infiltration.
Meanwhile, the Minister, after his successful visit to Beijing, has sent medicines and masks to China to battle SARS.
Fernandes asked the Director General, Armed Forces Health Services to prepare the consignment of 249 cases containing medicine and masks worth over Rs one crore, which was handed over to Chinese embassy officials.
---

Another MiG goes down, another young pilot killed
Indian Express 5 Jun 03


Jaipur/ Jammu, June 4: The infamous MiG list notched another kill when a Type 75 variant, one of the oldest versions of the aircraft, crashed shortly after take off from the Uttarlai Air Force base in Barmer district of Rajasthan, killing its pilot Flt Lt Deepankar Singh Jamwal.
On a routine sortie, 25-year-old Jamwal left the base at 7 am but 25 minutes later his aircraft crashed in a field west of Uttarlai. According to a Defence spokesperson, the aircraft, attempting low level flying manoeuvres, reportedly spun out of control near Paylakalan village, about 50 km from Barmer.
Initial reports indicated that the pilot probably tried to avoid crashing into an inhabited pocket of Meghwalon-ki-Dhani. It looks like the pilot chose not to eject out of the burning aircraft and instead steered it clear from the inhabited area.
The debris of the aircraft was strewn over a large area but there were no reports of casualties on the ground. Jamwal had been flying MiGs for over three years.
His family in Jammu father J S Jamwal is Director, Geological Survey of India learnt of the loss through a TV report as they were sitting down for breakfast.
Confirmation of Deepankars death came around 11.30 am when they received a call from the Uttarlai airbase. Elder brother Diwakar Singh Jamwal, a Captain in the Signals regiment and posted at Chandigarh, had not reached home till late tonight. Sister Manmeet said the family had been trying to arrange Deepankars marriage.
He spoke to us only yesterday, saying he was going to be promoted soon, recalled an inconsolable Manmeet. The body will be flown to Jammu for cremation on Thursday. A court of inquiry has been ordered into the incident. Officials said the black box had been recovered and investigations were on. This is the second MiG-21 crash this year. In the last two years, 10 pilots have been killed in as many as 45 crashes involving MiG-21 aircraft a majority of them due to technical and human error.
Seven of the 45 crashes reported in the last two years were from the Uttarlai air force station. Three pilots, including Flt Lt Jamwal have been killed in the seven crashes reported from this base.
A couple of months ago, an upgraded MiG-21 Bison had crashed after take off from Ambala. The IAF has been worried over problems in the fuel pump assembly of the upgraded MiG-21. Critics have also pointed out that in the absence of an Advance Jet Trainer, young pilots have been at considerable risk as they are being trained on the outdated MiG-21.
-
US for Indian troops in Kurd zone
Indina Express 4 Jun 03
New Delhi, June 3: New Delhi is grappling with the politicaly vexed issue of sending stabilisation force to Baghdad even as the US has formally indicated that it wants Indian Army troops in the Kurdish sector in Northern Iraq.
On the directions of the Cabinet Committee on Security meeting on May 26, the security establishment, after discussing the latest UN Security Council Resolution 1483, has come up with a series of options that makes the Iraq force option politically palatable. These options try to address the following questions posed by the CCS: Is there a UN mandate for the stablisation force? Under whose command will the Indian troops operate? And will Indians will be asked to fire on Iraqis to quell a law and order situation?
The security establishment here sees the UN mandate for the force in the operative paragraph one of resolution 1483, which appeals to member-states and not coalition partners to contribute to conditions of stability and security in Iraq. This means that, by sending troops to Iraq, India is answering to the UN appeal and not to the authority that is US and UK.
On the command and control structure, the broad thinking here is that the UN should impress upon the authority to look into the concept of rotational command. This means that establishment of a joint command structure between the sector commanders and the American Central Command headed by General Tommy Franks. It is felt that the joint command should be headed by a two-star general or officer of the rank of major-general, with the post being rotated among those countries contributing to the stabilisation force.
The logic is that a commander will be in charge of his troops in the clearly demarcated sectors following proper rules of engagement. However, he will be in touch with the joint command that will translate the authoritys action on the ground.
But South Block still does not have clear-cut answers to whether Indian troops will have to fire on Iraqis to quell the law and order situation. It was mainly this question that held back the CCS decision on sending troops to Iraq.
However, the outcome of discussions in the South Block indicates that chances of Indian troops firing on Iraqis are very limited, particularly when the deployment is going to be in Kurdish sector of Northern Iraq.
India has a long-standing engagement with the Kurds, who are semantically of a different stock than the Arabs and Jews in West Asia. After the enforcement of a no-fly-zone in northern Iraq, the Kurdish Patriotic Union of Jalal Talabani and Kurdish Democratic Party of Masood Barzani have been in control of these areas.
The two parties have been sharing the oil revenues from fields between cities of Kirkuk and Mosul in Northern Iraq and thus have little incentive in provoking the local populace against the Indian troops. All the same, if New Delhi were to send a troop division to Northern Iraq then it will have to deal with militants elements of Kurdistan Workers Party (PKK) led by Abdullah Ocalan and assuage the security concerns of neighbouring Turkey.
Ankara has serious concerns over Kurdish spill-over to its territory and has posted no less than 60 observers in Kirkuk and Mosul to keep a watch on the situation.
The Indian Army has already identified the battalions which will form a division (around 10,000 troops) for Iraq. While none of these battalions will be pulled out from Jammu and Kashmir, they will have a strong element of engineers and doctors in order to make themselves dear to the Iraqi people. But like the South Block, the Army needs a green signal before it moves into Iraq.
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Talwar-class ships to boost naval power
IndinaExpress 29 May 03
New Delhi, May 28: The Indian Navys blue water capabilities are expected to get a significant boost when it commissions three Talwar-class stealth frigates by the end of October this year.
The three ships, assigned to the Russian shipyards for construction, were delayed due to a glitch in the Sthil surface-to-air missile. As per the original contract with the Russians, the Indian Navy could refuse to accept the ship in the event of any flaw in the ship or its armaments on board. The performance of the missile was found lacking during user trials, say Navy sources.
In fact, in a bid to ensure that the delivery was made as per the contract, the Navy even pulled out its personnel sent to Russia to get familiarised with the ships.
According to South Block sources, Navy Chief Adm Madhvendra Singh will travel to Russia to receive the first of the three ships, INS Talwar, which will be followed by the INS Trishul and finally INS Tabar. The three frigates are expected to contribute to the Navys efforts to have a significant blue water capability. It will also give the Navy the flexibility to operate two ships under its Eastern and Western fleets and send the third for refit, say Navy sources
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Transforming defence for 21st century
Indina Express 25 May 03


Rep. Ike Skelton, D-Mo., laid out a number of objections to the Presidents proposed Defence Transformation Act for the 21st century. I respect Skeltons long service, but I disagree with many of his stated objections.
Here is why. Skelton argues that this legislation is the most sweeping overhaul of the Defence Department since the 1986 Goldwater-Nichols Act. He may be right but that is precisely the point. We are at this moment fighting the first wars of the 21st century with a department that has management and personnel systems developed decades ago, at the height of the Cold War. The threats we face today are notably different from that era.
We learned on September 11, 2001, that our nation is vulnerable to enemies who hide in the caves and shadows and strike in unexpected ways. That is why we must transform our armed forces. Our forces need to be flexible, light and agile, so they can respond quickly and deal with surprise. The same is true of the men and women who support them in the Department of Defence. They also need flexibility, so that they can move money, shift people, design and deploy new weapons more rapidly and respond to the continuing changes in our security environment. Today we do not have that kind of agility.
In an age the information age when terrorists move information at the speed of an e-mail, money at the speed of a wire transfer and people at the speed of a commercial jetliner, the Defence Department is still bogged down in the bureaucratic processes of the industrial age. Consider: we have more than 300,000 uniformed personnel doing jobs that should be done by civilians. That means that nearly three times the number of troops that were on the ground in Iraq during Operation Iraqi Freedom are doing non-military jobs that should be done by civilian personnel. Why is that? Its because when managers in the department want to get a job done, they go to the military. They know they can manage military people, put them in a job, give them guidance, transfer them from one task to another and change the way they do things. They cant do that with the civil service, because it is managed outside the Defence Department by others, with a system of rules and requirements fashioned for a different era.
The defence authorisation bill has grown from only one page in 1962 to a whopping 534 pages in 2001. The department is required to prepare and submit some 26,000 pages of justification, and more than 800 required reports to Congress each year many of marginal value, most probably not read. Since 1975, the time it takes to produce a new weapons system has doubled, even as new technologies are arriving in years and months, not decades.
We are working to fix problems that we have the freedom to fix. We have reduced management and headquarters staffs by 11 per cent, streamlined the acquisition process by eliminating hundreds of pages of unnecessary rules and red tape, and begun implementing a new business management structure.
But we also need legislative relief. That is why we are asking for:
• Measures for transforming our system of personnel management, so that we can gain more flexibility and agility in the way we manage the more than 700,000 civilians in the department. And let me be clear: The provisions we have proposed explicitly bar nepotism.
• Expanded authority for competitive outsourcing so that we can get military personnel out of non-military tasks and back into the field.
• Measures to protect our military training ranges so that our men and women in uniform will be able to train as they fight, while honouring our steadfast commitment to protecting the environment.
It is true, as Rep. Skelton notes, that the Goldwater-Nichols Act took four years for Congress to pass. But we do not have four years to wait to transform the threats are here now. If anything, our experience in the global war on terror has made the case for transformation even more urgent.
Because our enemies are watching us studying how we were successfully attacked, how we are responding and how we might be vulnerable again. In distant caves and bunkers, they are busy developing ways to harm our people methods of attack that could kill not 3,000 people, but 30,000 or 300,000 or more. And they are not struggling with bureaucratic red tape fashioned in the last century as they do so.
The fact is that the transformation of our military capabilities depends on the transformation of the way the Defence Department operates. This does not mean an end to congressional oversight. What it means is that we need to work together to ensure the department has the flexibility to keep up with the new threats emerging as this century unfolds. (LAT-WP)
The writer is the US Secretary of Defense
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Russian team pins blame on HAL for MiG crashes
Indina Express 21 Mayy 03
New Delhi, May 20: A Russian team from MiG-MAPO, the original manufacturers of the MiG aircraft, has arrived at Hindustan Aeronautics Limited (HAL), Nashik and are working with Indian Air Force to sort out technical problems plaguing the MiG-21 Bison.
It is understood that IAF chief S. Krishnaswamy initiated corrective measures after the second upgraded MiG-21 crashed near Ambala on April 7 this year. According to Air headquarters sources, Krishnaswamy wants the combat aircraft to undergo exhaustive checks before they are handed over to IAF for operational duties. The MiGs will also notch up extensive test flying hours before they join.
George to spend a
night in submarine
New Delhi: Defence Minister George Fernandes will spend a night in a submarine to learn of submariners’ working conditions. He will be a guest on INS Sindhuveer during his visit to Eastern Naval Command on May 24. He will also inspect the Sethusamudram project in Palk Straits. —ENS
Ever since the first upgraded MiG-21 crashed in September last year, the IAF has been concerned by quality checks conducted at HAL.
South Block sources said two workers employed at the Koraput plant were suspended after faults in engine assembly were discovered. IAF sources also said a Bison engine blew up in the plant indicating lack of quality checks.
Other indications of a slip up in checks was evident in the last crash on April 7 when the pilots survival kit attached to him, did not separate when he ejected. The kits failure to separate could be fatal to pilots during descent. However, pilot Flt Lt H. Garg, who ejected after take off, was lucky as his parachute was caught in a tree during descent.
Sources said the kits failure has been a cause for major concern at IAF headquarters. They are also worried of the problems with the fuel line assembly of upgraded MiGs.
Meanwhile, the Centre is still awaiting a response from Islamabad on Indias offer to resume ties in the Civil Aviation sector. According to MEA sources, New Delhi has sought certain clarifications before resuming ties. It is understood that India has sought a clarification on whether links included overflight facilities.

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UN warns of N-emergency
IndinaExpress 21 may 03
Vienna, May 20: The head of the United Nations nuclear watchdog agency warned on Monday that a nuclear contamination emergency may be developing in Iraq and appealed to the US to let his experts back into the country.
I am deeply concerned by the almost daily reports of looting and destruction at nuclear sites, International Atomic Energy Agency chief Mohamed ElBaradei said in a statement.
US finds a cure for
radiation sickness
Washington: US military officials are expressing enthusiasm about an experimental drug — HE-2100 — that they say could protect the health of troops, police officers and emergency medical personnel who respond to terrorist attacks involving nuclear weapons or radiation-spewing ‘‘dirty bombs’’. The drug being developed by Hollis-Eden Pharmaceuticals Inc of San Diego appears to offer significant protection from radiation sickness, which would kill many more people in nuclear attacks than the initial blast.
‘‘We want it on the fast track,’’ said Admiral James Zimble, a top military health official who is president of the Uniformed Services University in Bethesda. Experts cautioned that more research needs to be done to prove the drug’s effectiveness and safety when administered to humans. The vast majority of new drugs that appear promising in animal studies never gain approval for humans. But radiation specialists said tests on this drug with mice, dogs and monkeys suggest that it will work in people and won’t prove toxic.
Military officials are encouraged by results from animal studies that appear to demonstrate that the drug offers protection when administered before radiation exposure as well as a few hours after exposure. It buttresses the immune system, in particular the infection-fighting powers of bone marrow, which is most vulnerable to radiation. Hollis-Eden estimates that an eight-day course of the drug would cost as much as $100. — LAT-WP
He said he was especially worried about the potential radiological safety and security implications of nuclear and radiological materials that may no longer be under control.
He said the reports the IAEA has received described uranium being emptied on the ground from containers before they were taken for domestic use and radioactive sources being stolen from their shielding.
The UN agency has warned that stolen radioactive material could end up in the hands of terrorists who could use it to make dirty bombs, which combine radioactive material with a conventional explosive to spread it over a wide area.
In Washington, a senior State Department official hinted the US might be more favourable to the IAEA returning to Iraq on its own rather than under the auspices of the UN Monitoring, Verification and Inspection Commission.
ElBaradei first asked the US on April 10 to secure nuclear material stored under UN seal at Tuwaitha and was promised by the US that its military would keep the site secure. One of the sources stored at Tuwaitha is caesium 137, a highly radioactive powder that would be especially dangerous in a dirty bomb.
After numerous media reports of looting, ElBaradei wrote again to the US on April 29 requesting permission to send a mission to Iraq. He has received no response so far and said that the contamination could lead to a serious humanitarian situation.
There have already been media reports that residents near Tuwaitha have exhibited radiation sickness symptoms. (Reuters














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Defense News
June 06, 2003
Planners Laud Indian Soldier Idea
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
An Indian Army blueprint to equip the future infantry soldier has found overwhelming acceptance among military planners here, a senior Indian Ministry of Defence official said June 2.
The plan, which ministry officials said will cost about $5 billion in the next 20 years, was submitted to the MoD in January. The senior official said the price tag would not be an obstacle.
“The future requirement would be of an effective military response through rapid deployment of a capable force,” the official said. “As such, the infantry soldier must be capable of operating in the information age battlespace through harmonization of surveillance capabilities.”
While the plan has been with military planners in the MoD since January, some details were disclosed last week. It is not known when the plan will get the final blessing of the MoD. Once it is approved — a decision that would not be made public — the plan will be executed over the 20-year period.
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Defense News
June 06, 2003
Russian Team To Oversee MiG Upgrades in India
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
India has contracted a team from Moscow-based Russian Aircraft Corporation MiG (RSK MiG) to inspect MiG fighter parts being used to upgrade the jets at Indian aircraft manufacturing facilities. The move came in the wake of several crashes of upgraded MiG aircraft flown by the Indian Air Force, primarily MiG-21 fighters.
A 25-member RSK-MiG team arrived at Hindustan Aeronautics Ltd. (HAL) MiG facilities in Nasik the week of June 2 at the behest of Air Chief Marshal Sriniwaspuram Krishnaswamy, after the April crash of a newly upgraded MiG-21 bis aircraft. The cost for the team’s work was not disclosed, but the program is expected to stay in place for the next three months.
The crashes sparked controversy here over the quality of the spare parts used and the integration work done by HAL to upgrade the MiGs for the Air Force.
See full story in the June 9, 2003, issue of Defense News.
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Inspectors Rap India’s Import Procedures
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI
India’s anti-corruption agency, the Central Vigilance Commission (CVC), cites potential problems in the way military equipment is procured from overseas markets.
The CVC’s list of so-called lapses was sent in early April to Defence Minister George Fernandes for his review. Defence Ministry officials here said they fear the CVC’s observations will lead to the beauracracy taking an overly cautious approach to defense spending, which in turn would slow significantly the pace of procurement, worth around $2 billion a year.
After the government-defense industry scandal of 2001, Fernandes ordered the CVC to investigate all procurement deals since 1989.
“The lapses were noticed by the CVC after scrutiny of over 1,000 defense files pertaining to procurement of arms and equipment from overseas markets” since 1989, a CVC official said May 26. A Defence Ministry official said the ministry has yet to issue its response or plan of action in the wake of the CVC observations. Ministry officials said Fernandes will schedule a meeting soon with CVC chief P. Shankar to discuss the report.
See full story in the June 2, 2003, issue of Defense News.

posted by promila 11:30 PM


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