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Tuesday, December 23, 2003

 
Israeli Defense Chief in India for Talks on Military Cooperation
By AGENCE FRANCE-PRESSE, NEW DELHI

The director general of the Israeli defense ministry held talks Monday with Indian officials on arms procurement and other cooperation, an Indian defense ministry source said.
Maj. Gen. Amos Yaron met with the chiefs of the Indian army, air force and navy.
“He is leading the Israeli side in the delegation-level talks. The meeting is focusing on arms procurement, joint military research and industrial cooperation in the defense sector,� the source told AFP.

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Yaron will also meet Indian Defense Minister George Fernandes during his two-day visit.
In October India signed a $1 billion deal with Israel to buy three Phalcon airborne early warning radar systems, which rival Pakistan has warned could trigger an arms race in South Asia.
The Phalcon agreement came a month after Ariel Sharon paid a visit to India, the first by an Israeli prime minister.
India, a longtime supporter of the Palestinian cause, only established diplomatic relations with Israel in 1992. Since then Israel has become India’s second-largest defense supplier, after Russia, with annual sales topping $1 billion.
Separately, Israeli Science and Technology Minister Eliezer Sandberg and Aby Har-Even, director general of the Israel Space Agency, began a three-day visit to India Dec. 22.
They are due to sign an agreement to put Israel’s Tauvex space telescope on India’s GSAT-4 satellite
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India to Gain Holding Fund for Surpluses
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian government plans to set up a Defence Modernization Fund that could accelerate weapon and equipment purchases.
The fund is the government’s response to the Ministry of Defence’s (MoD’s) failure to spend all the money allocated to it in the last three defense budget cycles. This move creates a permanent account from which the MoD can draw money as needed for defense purchases.
The Defence Modernization Fund will be set up with an initial amount, which a senior Defence Ministry official would not disclose. He said, however, that any unspent money in the future will be put into the new Defence Modernization Fund.

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A senior MoD official said Dec. 15 that the non-expiring fund will be set up after the 2004-05 budget cycle, which begins in February.
In the last few years, the MoD has had to surrender unspent funds for other government needs, as several acquisition projects were delayed.In the last two years, unspent funds totaled about $1 billion each year. During the 2002-03 budget year, $1.86 billion was surrendered by the MoD, which constitutes around 13 percent of the total defense budget of $13.82 billion.
The Defence Modernization Fund could swell to about $5 billion in the next three years, noted another MoD official.
“Weapon acquisition would become much easier for the services with the setting up of the Defence Modernization Fund, which will include surrendered funds from the yearly budget. … In the current system, it is difficult to finalize several acquisition projects in the 12-month cycle,� a senior Air Force official said. The services would be less pressured to respond to procurement decisions out of fear of losing available funds.
Sometimes it takes 18 months for equipment to reach the services after a procurement decision is made by the MoD, the Air Force official said. He added that the Air Force urgently needs around 120 aircraft, and that creating the fund offers new hope for the acquisition of used Dassault Mirage 2000-5 aircraft. The MoD is negotiating to buy the combat jets from Qatar
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Panel Pans Delays in Building India’s Arjun Tanks
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India’s parliamentary watchdog on government expenditures, the Public Accounts Committee, has noted that the delay in producing the indigenous Arjun main battle tank will “seriously undermine the entire planning to re-equip and modernize the Army.�
“The remarks of the 57th Public Accounts Committee report, released by the Indian Parliament Dec. 16, has given support to the idea among a section of the defense planners that India should rely on off-the-shelf purchases from overseas defense markets� to acquire tanks and other military equipment, a senior Ministry of Defence official said Dec. 16.
The $5 million Arjun project was launched in 1974 by India’s Defence Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) with the objective of eliminating the country’s dependence on foreign countries for military equipment.

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The Arjun tank was intended to enter service between 1985 and 2000, replacing the Army’s existing Vijayanta and T55 tanks. However, the delay in the production of Arjun tanks at Indian factories has delayed the replacement of the obsolete Vijayantas, an Indian Army official said Dec. 16.
The production of 124 Arjun tanks was awarded in 2000 to the state-owned heavy vehicles factory, Avadhi. The first lot was expected to enter production in 2003. The schedule has been revised to 2007.
Because of the Arjun tank delays, India in 2000 signed an agreement with Russia to acquire 310 T90 Main Battle tanks; deliveries began last year.
The Arjun tank is to be equipped with a 120mm gun; a 1,030-horsepower engine from German firm MTU; an integrated fire control system; nuclear, biological and chemical protection system; and laser warning systems.
The Public Accounts Committee also expressed concern over the steep increase in foreign components used in Arjun prototypes.
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Indian Army Outlines Big Weapon Buying Blueprint
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian Army has drawn up a blueprint for modernizing the service in what will be the largest procurement effort in decades.
Lt. Gen. Ashok Chaki, the Army’s deputy chief of procurement, said Oct. 28 the service must upgrade arms, surveillance equipment and command, control and communications systems to maintain an edge over its adversaries.
The 10-year procurement plan, estimated to cost around $15 billion, was submitted to the Ministry of Defence (MoD) in October, a senior Army planning official said Nov. 14. The modernization blueprint also envisions a complete overhaul of existing weaponry.

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The Facts:
modernization buys

The Indian Army in the next 10 years wants to buy:
* New advanced command, control, communication, computer, intelligence, surveillance and reconnaissance equipment, and information warfare systems, as well as upgrades to existing systems.
* Nuclear, biological and chemical equipment, such as protective gear, detection and alarm systems, modulators, vaccine agents, bio-agents and radio protectors.
* Agni, Reflex and Kornet surface-to-surface missiles and Igla surface-to-air missiles, and air defense system upgrades.
* Equipment to upgrade the night-vision capabilities.
* Unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats.
* Various versions of 155mm guns, rocket launchers and other weaponry.
SOURCE: Defense News research

A Defence Ministry official said Nov. 10 that the MoD is considering ways to finance the plan during the next decade. Army officials expect the program to get government approval in December, with bids being solicited in January or February. Deliveries could begin in June, they said.
Arming the Troops
“Our foremost priority is to modernize the Infantry and Rashtriya Rifle Units, which are engaged in combating insurgency and cross-border infiltration,� Chaki said. “The aim is to enhance their lethality, survivability and surveillance capability.�
He said that the equipment procured for these units will include hand-held thermal imagers, short-range battlefield surveillance rad ar, unattended ground sensors, high-resolution binoculars, under-barrel grenade launchers, multiple grenade launchers and sniper rifles with night sights.
To increase troop movement, new high-mobility vehicles are being sought, and the engines of existing ones will be modernized.
Chaki said that emphasis also is being put on boosting conventional warfare capabilities, particularly in procuring thermal imaging sights for tanks, various types of surveillance radar, unmanned aerial vehicles and aerostats





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India to Seek Proposals On 600 Shilka Upgrades
Program Expected to Cost More Than $400M

By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

Time and a lack of spare parts have taken their toll on the Indian Army’s Shilka air defense system, so the government in the next couple of months will solicit bids to upgrade all the Russian-made ZSU-23-4 systems.
The modernization program will be carried out in phases, with 48 Shilka systems to be ugraded in the first round, said a senior Army procurement official Dec. 15.
The Army has about 600 Shilka air defense systems in its inventory slated for upgrades during the next three to five years. The entire effort is expected to cost more than $400 million, a Ministry of Defence procurement official said Dec. 16, with the price tag for the first phase at about $40 million.

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Some critical aspects of the program, the Army official said, include radar and computer replacement, electro-optical control system installation, and engine upgrades for the vehicles that carry the systems.
“The basic aim of the upgrade is to extend the life of the 25-year-old Shilka air defense systems by at least 20 years,� he said.
New Detectors, Computers Sought
The Army’s new requirements for the system include detection of targets as low as 30 meters in altitude; a fire-control computer compatible with fire control systems that are based on radar as well as electro-optical devices; and an electro-optical tracking system, the Defence Ministry official said.
Another requirement pertains to the ability of the upgraded Shilka systems to be functional in temperatures ranging from minus 40 degrees Celsius to 55 degrees Celsius, and to be able to perform in plains and semi-desert terrain.
The MoD will be very careful in selecting a vendor that can guarantee a continuous supply of spare parts after the upgrades are complete, the ministry official said.
An executive of Russia’s arms export agency, Rosoboronexport, said Dec. 11 that his company has sent its offer to do the Shilka upgrades for the Army. The proposal includes installation of combat control systems, and a gun with advanced search capabilities and increased fire accuracy, reduced vehicle signature, increased vehicle mobility and improved life support, the executive said.
Another Army official said Dec. 16 that there are more than 1,500 pieces of ZSU-23-4 Quad and L-70 air defense systems in the service’s inventory. They are spread across India, yet several are sitting dormant due to lack of spare parts and age, the official said.
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India Tests Surface-to-Air Missile Three Times in Two Days
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

India tested its Trishul short-range surface-to-air missile — with an upgraded guidance system — three times Dec. 18 and 19 at the Integrated Test Range in Chandipur. Defense officials said the Trishul was fired from a mobile launcher at a moving airborne target twice Friday and once Thursday. They described the test as a success.
The tests were performed for the Navy version of the missile, an Indian Navy official said.
Under development since 1983, the Trishul appeared on the verge of being scrapped early this year, but the Defense Research and Development Organisation (DRDO) reignited the program by incorporating a new guidance system.

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Indian Defense Ministry spokesman Amitabha Chakraborty said Dec.19 that the Trishul met its objective in this week’s tests, and that more tests are expected in the next few weeks to fine-tune the systems.
Earlier this year, the government said it would continue to build Trishul as a technology demonstrator but that it would not be used by the military. New Delhi later announced, however, that the missile’s guidance system had been upgraded, and a series of tests were conducted in June.
A DRDO scientist said everything is going well and that the missile will be introduced into the defense forces, but he did not specify when.
The Trishul missile was designed for use by all three branches of the Indian defense forces — against low-flying aircraft by the Army and Air Force, and against sea-skimming missiles by the Navy. The solid-fuel-propelled missile has a range from 300 meters to 9 kilometers and can deliver a 15-kilogram warhead.
Agence France-Presse contributed to this report from Bhubaneswar, India
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Indian Navy Drafts Plan for Industry-Military Partnership
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

The Indian Navy has drafted a plan that calls for local industry to help meet the service’s equipment requirements for the next 15 years, an effort the Navy’s chief of materiel calls a win-win situation.
“This would help private domestic industry to conceive and plan production initiatives for meeting naval requirements,� Vice Adm. Pramod Chandra Bhasin said, addressing a meeting of the Navy-Industry Partnership here Dec. 3. The meeting was organized by India’s largest lobbying group, the Confederation of Indian Industries.
This does not implement an official “buy Indian� policy, as local companies will still have to compete with international bidders to gain some orders from the Navy.

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The Facts:
Procurement Plan

The new plan, covering 2003-2018, is broken up into five areas:
* Marine engineering
* Electrical engineering
* Weapons and sensors
* Hull materials
* Other naval equipment
SOURCE: Defense News research

But under this plan, the Navy will help domestic companies identify spare parts and systems that they could manufacture for the service in the long run, and the service in turn would show preference to local industry. The Navy also will lend support to industry.
Bhasin noted that while the domestic industry faces stiff international competition to build naval systems, it should be glad to get a slice of the local defense pie, and the Navy for its part would not have to rely on foreign suppliers and the red tape that goes with international contracts.
Bhasin said the new plan, covering 2003-2018, would address immediate requirements as well as future, cutting-edge ideas.
Indian industry now has the chance to benefit from nearly every aspect of naval procurement, from weapons and sensors to maintenance and repair.
Under the first part of the effort, marine engineering, the Navy has invited private firms to pitch ideas for the development and production of propulsion solutions for ships and submarines, machinery control systems, auxiliary equipment and miscellaneous gear, including firefighting equipment, thermal-imaging cameras, protective clothing, acoustic enclosures and infrared separation devices.
For the electrical engineering portion of the plan, the Navy is looking for equipment in areas such as satellite communication systems, satellite navigation, automatic fire-detection systems, navigational radar systems, and command-and-control systems that can be produced locally.
The Indian Navy spends millions of dollars each year on weapons and sensor systems. Under this plan, the funds would bolster local industry and long-term research and development.
The Indian Navy today is completely dependent on steel from overseas sources, which accounts for nearly 40 percent of the cost of a warship, Bhasin said.
He added that the Navy today spends nearly $200 million annually on the procurement of machinery and spare parts alone, and nearly $1 billion each year on replacing equipment and weaponry.
Retired Indian Army Lt. Gen. S.K. Bhatnagar, chief adviser at warship equipment-maker Satish Kumar Bhatnagar TIL Ltd., Calcutta, said the concept of an Indian Navy-industry partnership is not adequate to bolster the local defense trade because, even for local companies, the Indian government’s procurement process is still too cumbersome for industry to find much immediate benefit.
Commodore K. Chandra Shekhar, assistant chief of materiel for the Indian Navy, said that bureaucratic hassles and red tape can be reduced through continuous dialogue between the users and the industry.
He said efforts would be made by the Navy to overcome procurement bottlenecks.
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No Final Price Agreement on Russian Carrier, India Says
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

Indian Defence Ministry officials said Dec. 4 that the long-pending deal for the acquisition of a decommissioned Russian aircraft carrier has not been finalized, though New Delhi and Moscow have agreed on the cost of refitting the ship at a Russian yard.
Defence Ministry officials said serious differences on whether to outfit the Admiral Gorshkov with the Russian Kashtan-M missile defense system or with the Israeli Barak system persist.
“It will take months to finalize the price of the MiG-29K aircraft for the carrier and the purchase of missile and anti-missile systems aboard the carrier,� one Defence Ministry official said.

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The Navy already has purchased seven Barak systems at around $40 million, and one system for its fleet’s sole aircraft carrier, the INS Viraat.
A Russian diplomat in New Delhi said Dec. 4 that the Kashtan-M system is equal to the Barak system in capability at half the price. The diplomat claimed the Kashtan system can engage four cruise missiles simultaneously.
The Defence Ministry’s announcement clarifies Navy chief Adm. Madhavendra Singh’s Dec. 2 announcement that the two countries at last had agreed that India would pay a total of about $666.6 million for the Admiral Gorshkov. Defence Ministry officials said that price — down from Russia’s earlier asking price of $1 billion — covers only the ship’s refitting by SevMash Enterprise, Severodvinsk, Russia.
Russia in October 2000 offered India the Admiral Gorshkov free of cost, but only if India agreed to pay for the carrier’s renovation in Russia
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India Seeks Link with Pakistan via Coast Guard
By VIVEK RAGHUVANSHI, NEW DELHI

An Indian Ministry of External Affairs (MEA) official told DefenseNews.com on Dec. 4 that New Delhi has proposed to Islamabad the establishment of communication links between the Indian Coast Guard and the Pakistan Maritime Security Agency.
The offer is part of a series of efforts, including a cease-fire that began Nov. 26, directed at improving ties between the two hostile neighbors.
“The communication links could cover matters relating to the humanitarian aspects concerning fishermen of both countries,� the MEA official said. Hundreds of Indian fishermen are in Pakistani jails, the official claimed.

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India also has proposed flag-level meetings between the two maritime forces every six months, the official added.
The communication linkage between the two forces would not affect the Indian Coastal Guard’s modernization program, a senior Coast Guard official said. Plans call for the Coast Guard to acquire 30 new offshore patrol vessels and fast patrol vessels, two hovercrafts, six naval surveillance helicopters and an undisclosed number of fixed-wing maritime reconnaissance aircraft in the next five years.

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Nine Nuclear Scientists Slip Out of Pakistan
Special SAT Report
KARACHI: At least nine senior Pakistani Nuclear Scientists have secretly absconded from Pakistan, the latest defection taking place as late as in July 2002, documents from Pakistan's nuclear power plant CHASNUPP, built with Chinese assistance at Chashma in central Pakistan, have revealed.
Eight of the nine absconders were "Senior Engineers" at CHASNUPP and one was an Assistant Engineer. Four of them belonged to the Operations Division of the power plant, two to the Mechanical Maintenance Division and one each to Electrical, Technical and Training Divisions. Many of them are CNS Fellows while others got their fellowship from Karachi Nuclear Power Plant, KANUPP. Six disappeared between February to October 2000, one in April 1997 and two in 2002.
The details about these defections were revealed in an innocent looking memo sent by the engineers of CHASNUPP to their higher authorities warning them that “many more� nuclear scientists were "planning to run� from the country because they were not getting a fair deal in Pakistan.
The Memo which gave a list of the nine absconders only speculated that these engineers had gone to USA, Canada or Australia but in fact they could have gone to any country as they left without permission or informing the authorities. Click to View List

There are some 250 nuclear engineers and scientists working at CHASNUPP. Most of them are unhappy with their salaries and other benefits and are thus looking for openings to leave the country quietly, as the Government of Pakistan would never allow them to go and work for some other country.
“The working conditions of these nuclear scientists should be a cause for grave concern to everyone as unhappy engineers at nuclear facilities could mean troubles of all kinds,� a retired Pakistani nuclear scientist told South Asia Tribune in Karachi.
The situation is ripe for any country needing their services to offer them a reasonable package and most will quietly disappear, traveling on passports which would not reveal their qualifications or experience. Pakistani passports normally do not mention the specific field of employment and it is easy to get replacement passports or even to conceal the real identity.
The engineers were getting so restless that some of them decided to write a detailed Memo pointing out the main problems being faced by them at the remote facility. Copies of the Memo were made available to the SA Tribune in Karachi by some of the relatives of the unhappy employees. Click to View Memo (copy quality not good) Page1 | Page2
A look at the Memo reveals that these engineers are being kept in Chashma as if they were in a “detention camp� because they are required to work 11 hours a day, seven days a week. “They work Monday to Sunday from 7.30 a.m. to 6.30 p.m. and sometimes many of them are called for emergency duty,� a concerned relative said, handing over a copy of the Office Order issued late in September this year. It confirmed that every one was required to work for 77 hours a week. Click to View Office Order
They are not allowed to keep their families in Chashma and scientists who are below Grade-20 are not being allowed even telephone facilities, the Memo reveals. Almost 90 per cent of the engineers fall in grades lower than 20.
The Memo of the Engineers warns that taking such heavy duty at such a sensitive facility could result in a major catastrophe. “As per IAEA, Pakistan Atomic Energy Commission (PAEC) and CHASNUPP regulations, (authorities) are bound to implement the 40 hours limit … Engineers are called for emergency duty and working hours easily touch 90 hours a week,� the Memo complains.
“Due to these extra abnormal working hours, the safety of the plant is in a dangerous position,� it warns reminding the authorities of the Chernobyl and Three-Mile Nuclear disasters in Soviet Union and USA.
There has been no immediate improvement in their working conditions, despite the Memo which shows that Pakistan’s nuclear manpower is now almost ready to disperse throughout the world, even to rogue nations needing their expertise.
The list of senior engineers who left the country for greener pastures mostly includes scientists who had at least two years of training from China and were highly qualified to run the power plant.
The cost of training such an engineer, as estimated by the CHASNUPP scientists themselves is Rs. 9 million per engineer in a 7 to 8 year period. Each person lost is a huge blow to the Pakistani nuclear establishment but working conditions and salaries are not being improved to keep them engaged.
For the rest of the world this is a scary situation as Pakistan could easily become the feeding ground for nuclear activities any where as Pakistani official wage structures are far less than any rich country with nuclear ambitions may offer, specially oil-rich states or organizations like Al Qaeda.
“The scientists of CHASNUPP have sounded the warning bell for the Pakistani authorities. They have to look after this sensitive resource and not push it to the edge. Otherwise it could mean disaster for the country,� the retired nuclear scientist warned.
SATribune downlaoded 23 dec03



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US Centcom Reveals Startling Data about Pakistan's Role in Attacks on Afghanistan
By Shaheen Sehbai

WASHINGTON: The US Central Command (Centcom) has provided startling official data of what General Pervez Musharraf’s Pakistan did for the US in Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF) against Afghanistan, allowing 57,800 US air attacks from Pak soil with the Pakistan economy suffering a staggering loss of US$ 10 billion.
This is the first official estimate of losses suffered by Pakistan, given by the US military high command and analysts say these figures could now be used extensively by the anti-American political forces in Pakistan to pressurize General Pervez Musharraf and his Government to explain his Taliban U-Turn and justify what Pakistan received in return.
With the upcoming visit of General Musharraf to the White House in Washington, or to Camp David in Maryland, as some Pakistani diplomats are now trying, this data will strengthen his case for more US aid as the Afghan situation has not yet fully settled as envisaged by the US. Pakistan's strategic and military help is still a key factor in containing the anti-US elements.
The Centcom figures are far in excess of what Pakistani Government officials and experts have been claiming, the highest claim being US$ 2-3 billion. In contrast, what the US has offered to Pakistan so far, a US$ 1 billion write-off of loans, looks like as spoon of tomato ketchup in place of a full fledged state banquet.
"This is a goldmine of political ammunition for the religious right wing forces, like the MMA, to blast the US and the Musharraf Government," one analyst said.
These figures have been revealed in a detailed review of Pakistan’s role in the operation and are specifically mentioned under the title “Effects of Operation Enduring Freedom on Economy of Pakistan� at the US Centcom web site, a huge resource about the US and coalition activities under the Command.
The Web site is still not complete but it gives a list of all the countries which contributed in the international coalition, 51 states named so far. Each country has been assigned a full page and details of that country's efforts and contributions have been listed. After Canada, Pakistan has the most data on the page. Many country pages, including that of Saudi Arabia, are still under construction. The web site is, however, up to date on all other Centcom activities.
“Operation Enduring Freedom adversely affected the already fragile economy of Pakistan. Major losses were caused to the civil aviation, tourism, investment and shipping due to rise in the rates of insurance,� the Centcom site data says.
“Besides this, Pakistani exports also suffered adversely and foreign investments experienced a visible decline. According to a rough estimate, Pakistan’s economy suffered a loss of over US$ 10 billion since October 2001,� it adds. Click to View Pakistan Data on Centcom Web site (This page was saved before it was removed from the Centcom web site after SA Tribune broke this story).
But more mind boggling are the other stats revealed by the Centcom about use of Pakistani air

and ground space and facilities provided for Operation Enduring Freedom (OEF). For instance the Centcom data reveals that:
- Pakistan provided five air bases/airfields. However in emergency planes could land anywhere in Pakistan.
- On the average 400,000 liters of fuel per day was provided to US.
- A total of 57,800 sorties were generated from Pakistan’s air space/soil.
- In order to facilitate launching of air ops into Afghanistan, Pakistan provided 2/3rd of its air space as air corridor to the US/Coalition Forces. By so doing, Pakistan had to reschedule/ redirect many of its commercial flights.
- Pakistan Navy provided landing facility to the US/Coalition ships at Pasni.
- At sea, Pakistan Navy operations/training were curtailed in order to accommodate and facilitate the operations of US/Coalition Naval Forces.
- According to the US Marine Corps Gazette of June 2002, the Coalition Naval Operations at Pasni were the largest amphibious operations in size, duration and depth that the Marine Corps had conducted since the Korean War.
- In all, 8,000 Marines, 330 vehicles and over 1350 tons of equipment/logistic were off loaded at the beach and later flown to Kandahar from Pasni.

Besides these, in the War against Terrorism, according to the Centcom data, up to October 2002, the US side made 2,160 requests (of different nature) to Pakistan of which action on 2,008 was completed. Likewise 99 raids were conducted, 420 foreign nationals were apprehended of which 332 were handed over to the US, 34 were sent to other countries, 38 were released and 16 were under interrogation.
Details of Pakistan Army operations in the Tribal areas of Pakistan have also been provided at the Web site. Some of the data appears to have been provided to Centcom by the Pakistan Government and narrates the compulsions of the Pakistan Army in operating along the Pak-Afghan border.
“Tora Bora operations provided a window of opportunity to penetrate these areas which was capitalized by quickly moving the Army in Tirah Valley which captured 250 Al Qaida/Taliban fleeing into Pakistan. Later the Pak Army along with FC extended its operations to Miran Shah and Wana.
“In return, tribals have been offered a sizeable development package. The region, being remote and under developed warrants bringing it at par with rest of the country in terms of provision of basic facilities like communication infrastructure, health, education and employment opportunities. Same analogy is being followed in North Waziristan Agency/South Waziristan Agency (NWA/SWA) to prevent slipping in of Al Qaida/Taliban into our territory.�
“In spite of ominous threat on Eastern Border, Pakistan is maintaining a sizeable portion of her strategic forces on Western Border. This clearly speaks of our resolve to support coalition operations against Al Qaida/Taliban elements,� it says.
The compulsions mentioned include: Shortage of manpower, technical equipment and funds; Threats of war from India due to unresolved Kashmir dispute despite UN resolutions and Indian/international commitments even after 54 years; Constitutional restraint of operations in the FATAs (Federally Administered Tribal Areas); Domestic sensitivity to allow operations within Pak territory by foreign soldiers; and Cultural and religious sensitivities.
Figures of Pakistani deployment of Forces reveal initially two Army corps along with large contingents of FC troops (para military) were deployed along Western border including some of the areas hitherto considered as no go tribal areas. A total of 60,000 regular troops and 55,000 paramilitary personnel were employed on sealing of western border, internal security duties and protection of various bases being used by US/Coalition Forces. Later bulk of the regular formations was shifted towards the eastern border due to Indian Military build up.
Because of very effective security arrangements ensured by Pakistan, not a single breach of security has occurred around the bases in use by Coalition Forces.

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Pakistan
Immediately after 9/11, Pakistan was prompt in declaring unequivocal support to US in its war against terrorism. It expressed its complete solidarity with US in combating terrorism in all forms and, was willing to provide not only moral but also logistical support and its military bases. Details of the efforts and participation of Pakistan and the adverse effects of following this policy are given in the ensuing paragraphs:
Support Provided by Pakistan for OEF. Up till Oct 2002, some of the specific assistance provided by Pakistan for Operation Enduring Freedom is as follows:
Provision of Air Bases / Airfields. In order to meet the requirement of US/Coalition Forces, Pakistan provided five air bases / airfields. However in emergency planes could land anywhere in Pakistan. On the average 0.4 million litres of fuel per day has been provided to US forces as well as all other services on the bases used by them. A total of 57800 sorties have been generated from Pakistan’s air space/soil.
Provision of Air Corridor. In order to facilitate launching of air ops into Afghanistan, Pakistan provided 2/3 of its air space as air corridor to the US/Coalition Forces. By so doing, Pakistan had to reschedule/ redirect many of the commercial flights.
Provision of Naval Facilities. Pakistan Navy provided landing facility to the US/Coalition ships at Pasni. At sea, Pakistan Navy operations/training were curtailed in order to accommodate and facilitate the operations of US/Coalition Naval Forces. According to the US Marine Corps Gazette of June 2002, the Coalition Naval Operations at Pasni were the largest amphibious operations in size, duration and depth that the Marine Corps had conducted since the Korean War. In all, 8000 Marines, 330 vehicles and over 1350 tons of equipment/logistic were off loaded at the beach and later flown to Kandhar from Pasni.
Summary of US Requests. Details of request since 11 September 2001 are as follows:
(1) Requests received 2160
(2) Action completed 2008
(3) Action in process 152
Foreign Nationals Apprehended. Two of the most wanted Al-Qaida terrorists, Abu-Zubaida and Ramzi Bin Al-Shaiba, were arrested by the Pakistan’s law enforcing agencies during well planned and carefully conducted raids and handed over to US authorities. Abu Zubaida was considered Number 2 man in Al Qaida leadership thus his apprehension has given a boost to OEF. Ramzi Bin Al-Shaiba is suspected to be actually involved in the terrorist attacks of September 11. Overall details since 11 September 2001 are:
(1) Total Raids 99
(2) Foreign National Apprehended 420
(3) Handed Over to USA 332
(4) Extradited to countries other than USA 34
(5) Released 38
(6) Under Interrogation 16
ISAF. To facilitate the operations of ISAF in Afghanistan, the Karachi Airport (FMB) and Sea Port facilities along with logistic support have been extended. A MOU in this regard was signed between the Governments of UK and Pakistan. Now that the role of lead Nation has been taken over by Turkey, the same facilities / assistance are being provided to them.
Pakistan’s Operations along Pak-Afghan Border
Measures Taken to Penetrate “Tribal Areas�. Tora Bora operations provided a window of opportunity to penetrate these areas which was capitalized by quickly moving the Army in Tirah Valley which captured 250 Al Qaida/Taliban fleeing into Pakistan. Later the Pak Army along with FC extended its operations to Miran Shah and Wana. In return, tribals have been offered a sizeable development package. The region, being remote and under developed warrants bringing it at par with rest of the country in terms of provision of basic facilities like communication infrastructure, health, education and employment opportunities. Same analogy is being followed in North Waziristan Agency/South Waziristan Agency (NWA/SWA) to prevent slipping in of Al Qaida/Taliban into our territory. In spite of ominous threat on Eastern Border, Pakistan is maintaining a sizeable portion of her strategic forces on Western Border. This clearly speaks of our resolve to support coalition operations against Al Qaida/Taliban elements.
On 25 June 2002, an operation was launched against suspected Al Qaida/Taliban elements in area Azam Warsak (Wana). During this operation 2 x Al Qaida members were killed, one apprehended whereas 13 x security personnel were killed including 2 x officers. This shows Pakistan’s resolve to not only “drain the swamp� but also nab the “alligators�.
Our Compulsions
Shortage of manpower, technical equipment and funds.
Threats of war from India due to unresolved Kashmir dispute despite UN resolutions and Indian/international commitments even after 54 years.
Constitutional restraint of operations in the FATAs (Federally Administered Tribal Areas).
Domestic sensitivity to allow operations within Pak territory by foreign soldiers.
Cultural and religious sensitivities.
Deployment of Forces
Initial Deployment. Initially two Army corps along with large contingents of FC troops (para military) were deployed along Western border including some of the areas hitherto considered as no go tribal areas. A total of 60,000 regular troops and 55000 paramilitary personnel were employed on sealing of western border, internal security duties and protection of various bases being used by US / Coalition Forces. Later bulk of the regular formations was shifted towards the eastern border due to Indian Military build up.
Because of very effective security arrangements ensured by Pakistan, not a single breach of security has occurred around the bases in use by Coalition Forces.
Current Deployment. In spite of imminent threat of war on our Eastern border and at peril to our security Army till today continues to retain 3 x brigades size regular force along with 40 x FC Wings totalling approximately 45000 troops along Pak-Afghan Border.
On Going Operations. A division (-) size force is operating along Pak-Afghan border with the purpose of eliminating suspected Al Qaida/Taliban elements and regular monitoring.
Effects of Operation Enduring Freedom on Economy of Pakistan. Operation Enduring Freedom adversely affected the already fragile economy of Pakistan. Major losses were caused to the civil aviation, tourism, investment and shipping due to rise in the rates of insurance. Besides this, Pakistani exports also suffered adversely and foreign investments experienced a visible decline. According to a rough estimate, Pakistan’s economy suffered a loss of over US$ 10 billion since October 2001.
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posted by promila 8:14 AM


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